Research Papers:

C1orf64 is a novel androgen receptor target gene and coregulator that interacts with 14-3-3 protein in breast cancer

Ali Naderi _

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Oncotarget. 2017; 8:57907-57933. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.17826

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Ali Naderi1

1University of Hawaii Cancer Center, Cancer Biology Program, Honolulu, Hawaii 96813, USA

Correspondence to:

Ali Naderi, email: [email protected], [email protected]

Keywords: androgen receptor, C1orf64, 14-3-3, breast cancer, coregulator

Received: January 31, 2017     Accepted: April 11, 2017     Published: May 11, 2017


This study investigated the network of genes that are co-expressed with androgen receptor (AR) to discover novel AR targets in breast cancer. Bioinformatics analysis of two datasets from breast cancer cell lines resulted in the identification of an AR-gene signature constituted of 98 genes that highly correlated with AR expression. Notably, C1orf64 showed the highest positive correlation with AR across the datasets with a correlation coefficient (CC) of 0.737. In addition, C1orf64 closely correlated with AR expression in primary and metastatic breast tumors and C1orf64 expression was relatively higher in breast tumors with a lower grade and lobular histology. Furthermore, there is a functional interplay between AR and C1orf64 in breast cancer. In this process, AR activation directly represses C1orf64 transcription and C1orf64, in turn, interacts with AR as a corepressor and negatively regulates the AR-mediated induction of prolactin-induced protein (PIP) and AR reporter activity. Moreover, the corepressor effect of C1orf64 results in a reduction of AR binding to PIP promoter. The other aspect of this interplay involves a cross-talk between AR and estrogen receptor (ER) signaling in which C1orf64 silencing intensifies the AR-mediated down-regulation of ER target gene, progesterone receptor. Therefore, the repression of C1orf64 by AR provides an underlying mechanism for the AR inhibitory effects on ER signaling. To elucidate the biochemical mechanisms of C1orf64 function, this study demonstrates that C1orf64 is a phosphothreonine protein that interacts with the chaperone protein 14-3-3. In summary, C1orf64 is a novel AR coregulator and a 14-3-3 binding partner in breast cancer.

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