Antagonistic effects of selenium on cadmium-induced apoptosis by restoring the mitochondrial dynamic equilibrium and energy metabolism in chicken spleens
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Zhe Xu1, Xi Jin1, Tingru Pan1, Tianqi Liu1, Na Wan1 and Shu Li1
1College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin, 150030, P. R. China
Shu Li, email: [email protected]
Keywords: cadmium, selenium, spleens, mitochondrial dynamics, apoptosis
Received: January 28, 2017 Accepted: April 12, 2017 Published: April 30, 2017
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of cadmium-induced apoptosis in chicken spleens and the antagonistic effects of selenium. We duplicated the selenium-cadmium interaction model and examined the expression of apoptosis-, immune-, mitochondrial dynamics- and energy metabolism-related genes. The results demonstrated that after treatment with cadmium, the frequency of apoptosis was significantly increased, and the morphological characteristics of apoptosis were observed. The expression of pro-apoptotic genes was increased, and that of anti-apoptotic genes was decreased. The mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interlenkin-1β were observably increased, but the interlenkin-2 and interferon-γ levels were markedly decreased. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of dynamin-related protein 1 and mitochondrial fission factor were significantly enhanced, whereas mitofusin 1, mitofusin 2, and optic atrophy 1 were markedly decreased. The expression of hexokinase 1, hexokinase 2, aconitase 2, lactate dehydrogenase A, lactate dehydrogenase B, succinatedehydrogenase B, pyruvate kinase and phosphofructokinase were also reduced. Selenium supplements remarkably attenuated cadmium-induced effects (p < 0.05). Based on the above results, conclude that the cadmium treatment promoted a mitochondrial dynamic imbalance and reduced energy metabolism, leading to apoptosis and immune dysfunction in chicken spleens, and selenium had an antagonistic effect on Cd-induced apoptosis.
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