Elevated serum growth differentiation factor 15 levels are associated with thyroid nodules in type 2 diabetes aged over 60 years
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Hongmei Zhang1, Weiwei Zhang1, Xiaofang Tu1, Yixin Niu1, Xiaoyong Li1, Li Qin1, Zhen Yang1 and Qing Su1
1Department of Endocrinology, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092, China
Qing Su, email: email@example.com
Zhen Yang, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: thyroid nodule, growth differentiation factor 15, type 2 diabetes
Received: February 15, 2017 Accepted: March 30, 2017 Published: April 21, 2017
In order to investigate whether serum growth differentiation factor 15 is associated with thyroid nodules in type 2 diabetes. We recruited 723 type 2 diabetic patients aged over 30 years who attended the clinic of Endocrinology of Xinhua Hospital from January 2013 to January 2015. Thyroid nodule was diagnosed by thyroid ultrasonographic examination. Serum growth differentiation factor 15, thyroid function, thyroid autoantibodies, thyroglobulin and other biochemical indicators were measured and compared between thyroid nodule positive and negative groups. We found that overall, serum growth differentiation factor 15 levels were significantly higher in subjects with thyroid nodules compared with nodule negative subjects (181.76±98.49 pg/ml vs. 162.32±83.63 pg/ml, p<0.05), and this was influenced by age. In the patients over 60 years, this difference became more significant (211.23±103.66 pg/ml vs. 177.38±85.51 pg/ml, p<0.01), but in patients under 60 years, there was no difference between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that serum growth differentiation factor 15 levels were independently associated with thyroid nodule in diabetic patients over 60 years (P <0.001). After multiple adjustments, the odds ratios were substantially higher for thyroid nodule (odds ratio 2.63, 95% confidence interval 1.30-5.13, p<0.01) in the highest growth differentiation factor 15 quartile compared to those in the lowest quartile in patients over 60 years. In conclusion, serum growth differentiation factor 15 is increased significantly in subjects with thyroid nodules in type 2 diabetic patients aged over 60 years.
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