Oncotarget

Research Papers:

Elevated serum growth differentiation factor 15 levels are associated with thyroid nodules in type 2 diabetes aged over 60 years

Hongmei Zhang _, Weiwei Zhang, Xiaofang Tu, Yixin Niu, Xiaoyong Li, Li Qin, Zhen Yang and Qing Su

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Oncotarget. 2017; 8:41379-41386. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.17328

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Abstract

Hongmei Zhang1, Weiwei Zhang1, Xiaofang Tu1, Yixin Niu1, Xiaoyong Li1, Li Qin1, Zhen Yang1 and Qing Su1

1Department of Endocrinology, Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092, China

Correspondence to:

Qing Su, email: suqingxinhua@163.com

Zhen Yang, email: zhenyang1020@hotmail.com

Keywords: thyroid nodule, growth differentiation factor 15, type 2 diabetes

Received: February 15, 2017     Accepted: March 30, 2017     Published: April 21, 2017

ABSTRACT

In order to investigate whether serum growth differentiation factor 15 is associated with thyroid nodules in type 2 diabetes. We recruited 723 type 2 diabetic patients aged over 30 years who attended the clinic of Endocrinology of Xinhua Hospital from January 2013 to January 2015. Thyroid nodule was diagnosed by thyroid ultrasonographic examination. Serum growth differentiation factor 15, thyroid function, thyroid autoantibodies, thyroglobulin and other biochemical indicators were measured and compared between thyroid nodule positive and negative groups. We found that overall, serum growth differentiation factor 15 levels were significantly higher in subjects with thyroid nodules compared with nodule negative subjects (181.76±98.49 pg/ml vs. 162.32±83.63 pg/ml, p<0.05), and this was influenced by age. In the patients over 60 years, this difference became more significant (211.23±103.66 pg/ml vs. 177.38±85.51 pg/ml, p<0.01), but in patients under 60 years, there was no difference between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that serum growth differentiation factor 15 levels were independently associated with thyroid nodule in diabetic patients over 60 years (P <0.001). After multiple adjustments, the odds ratios were substantially higher for thyroid nodule (odds ratio 2.63, 95% confidence interval 1.30-5.13, p<0.01) in the highest growth differentiation factor 15 quartile compared to those in the lowest quartile in patients over 60 years. In conclusion, serum growth differentiation factor 15 is increased significantly in subjects with thyroid nodules in type 2 diabetic patients aged over 60 years.


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