Caloric restriction delays early phases of carcinogenesis via effects on the tissue microenvironment
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Erika Cadoni1, Fabio Marongiu1, Maura Fanti1, Monica Serra1, Ezio Laconi1
1Department of Biomedical Sciences, Unit of Experimental Medicine University of Cagliari-Italy, Cagliari, Italy
Ezio Laconi, email: email@example.com
Keywords: aging, microenvironment, caloric restriction, pre-neoplastic hepatocytes, carcinogenesis
Received: February 07, 2017 Accepted: March 14, 2017 Published: March 21, 2017
Caloric restriction (CR) is an effective and consistent means to delay aging and the incidence of chronic diseases related to old age, including cancer. However, the precise mechanisms responsible for the beneficial effect of CR on carcinogenic process are yet to be identified.
In the present studies the hypothesis was tested that the CR might delay carcinogenesis via modulatory effects exerted on the age-associated, neoplastic-prone tissue microenvironment. Using a well characterized, orthotopic cell transplantation (Tx) system in the rat, preneoplastic hepatocytes isolated from liver nodules were injected into either old syngeneic rats fed ad libitum (AL) or animals of the same age given a CR diet (70% of AL feeding). Analysis of donor-derived cell clusters performed at 10 weeks post-Tx revealed a significant shift towards smaller class sizes in the group receiving CR diet. Clusters comprising more than 50 cells, including large hepatic nodules, were thrice more frequent in AL vs. CR animals. Incidence of spontaneous endogenous nodules was also decreased by CR. Markers of cell senescence were equally expressed in the liver of AL and CR groups. However, higher levels of SIRT1 and FOXO1 proteins were detected in CR-exposed livers, while expression of HDAC1 and C/EBPβ were decreased. These results are interpreted to indicate that CR delays the emergence of age-associated neoplastic disease through effects exerted, at least in part, on the tissue microenvironment. Nutrient-sensing pathways might mediate such modulatory effect.
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