Low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 is a novel coreceptor of protease-activated receptor-2 in the dynamics of cancer-associated β-catenin stabilization
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Jeetendra Kumar Nag1, Arun Kancharla1, Myriam Maoz1, Hagit Turm1, Daniel Agranovich1, Chhedi Lal Gupta2, Beatrice Uziely1 and Rachel Bar-Shavit1
1Sharett Institute of Oncology, Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem 91120, Israel
2Department of Biosciences, Integral University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh 226026, India
Rachel Bar-Shavit, email: Rachelbar@ekmd.huji.ac.il
Keywords: protease-activated receptors (PARs), protease, G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), cancer, β-catenin stabilization
Received: April 14, 2016 Accepted: February 17, 2017 Published: March 16, 2017
Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) plays a central role in cancer; however, the molecular machinery of PAR2-instigated tumors remains to be elucidated. We show that PAR2 is a potent inducer of β-catenin stabilization, a core process in cancer biology, leading to its transcriptional activity. Novel association of low-density lipoprotein-related protein 6 (LRP6), a known coreceptor of Frizzleds (Fz), with PAR2 takes place following PAR2 activation. The association between PAR2 and LRP6 was demonstrated employing co-immunoprecipitation, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET), and confocal microscopy analysis. The association was further supported by ZDOCK protein-protein server. PAR2-LRP6 interaction promotes rapid phosphorylation of LRP6, which results in the recruitment of Axin. Confocal microscopy of PAR2-driven mammary gland tumors in vivo, as well as in vitro confirms the association between PAR2 and LRP6. Indeed, shRNA silencing of LRP6 potently inhibits PAR2-induced β-catenin stabilization, demonstrating its critical role in the induced path. We have previously shown a novel link between protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) and β-catenin stabilization, both in a transgenic (tg) mouse model with overexpression of human PAR1 (hPar1) in the mammary glands, and in cancer epithelial cell lines. Unlike in PAR1-Gα13 axis, both Gα12 and Gα13 are equally involved in PAR2-induced β-catenin stabilization. Disheveled (DVL) is translocated to the cell nucleus through the DVL-PDZ domain. Collectively, our data demonstrate a novel PAR2-LRP6-Axin interaction as a key axis of PAR2-induced β-catenin stabilization in cancer. This newly described axis enhances our understanding of cancer biology, and opens new avenues for future development of anti-cancer therapies.
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