Correlation between facial morphology and gene polymorphisms in the Uygur youth population
Metrics: PDF 950 views | HTML 1664 views | ?
Huiyu He1,*, Xue Mi1,*, Jiayu Zhang1, Qin Zhang1, Yuan Yao1, Xu Zhang1, Feng Xiao1, Chunping Zhao2, Shutao Zheng3
1Department of Prosthodontics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi 830054, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, People’s Republic of China
2Department of Stomatology, The First People’s Hospital of Kashi, Kashi 844000, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, People’s Republic of China
3Clinical Medical Research Institute, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University, Urumqi 830054, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, People’s Republic of China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Huiyu He, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: three-dimensional grating facial scanning technology, facial morphology, gene polymorphism, SNaPshot technology
Received: January 20, 2017 Accepted: February 28, 2017 Published: March 14, 2017
Human facial morphology varies considerably among individuals and can be influenced by gene polymorphisms. We explored the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on facial features in the Uygur youth population of the Kashi area in Xinjiang, China. Saliva samples were collected from 578 volunteers, and 10 SNPs previously associated with variations in facial physiognomy were genotyped. In parallel, 3D images of the subjects’ faces were obtained using grating facial scanning technology. After delimitation of 15 salient landmarks, the correlation between SNPs and the distances between facial landmark pairs was assessed. Analysis of variance revealed that ENPP1 rs7754561 polymorphism was significantly associated with RAla-RLipCn and RLipCn-Sbn linear distances (p = 0.044 and p = 0.012, respectively) as well as RLipCn-Stm curve distance (p = 0.042). The GHR rs6180 polymorphism correlated with RLipCn-Stm linear distance (p = 0.04), while the GHR rs6184 polymorphism correlated with RLipCn-ULipP curve distance (p = 0.047). The FGFR1 rs4647905 polymorphism was associated with LLipCn-Nsn linear distance (p = 0.042). These results reveal that ENPP1 and FGFR1 influence lower anterior face height, the distance from the upper lip to the nasal floor, and lip shape. FGFR1 also influences the lower anterior face height, while GHR is associated with the length and width of the lip.
All site content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.