Sodium butyrate improves porcine host defense peptide expression and relieves the inflammatory response upon toll-like receptor 2 activation and histone deacetylase inhibition in porcine kidney cells
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Xiujing Dou1, Junlan Han1, Wentao Song1, Na Dong1, Xinyao Xu1, Wei Zhang1, Anshan Shan1
1Institute of Animal Nutrition, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, P.R. China
Anshan Shan, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: porcine kidney cells, sodium butyrate, host defense peptides, TLR2, mechanism
Received: September 24, 2016 Accepted: February 13, 2017 Published: February 24, 2017
Host defense peptides (HDPs) are an important component of the innate immune system and possess direct antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. Dietary regulation of HDPs synthesis has emerged as a novel non-antibiotic approach to combat pathogen infection. There are species- and tissue-dependent characteristics of the regulation and mechanism of HDPs. In this study, we investigated whether the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) sodium butyrate (NaB) could induce HDP expression and the mechanism underlying NaB-regulated HDP expression in PK-15 cells. Our results revealed that NaB augmented HDP expression in PK-15 cells, including porcine β-defensin 3 (pBD3), epididymis protein 2 splicing variant C (pEP2C), pBD128, pBD123, and pBD115, but no inflammatory response occurred. Inhibition of HDAC activity was not sufficient to induce the expression of pBD3 and pEP2C in comparisons of NaB and another HDACi, trichostatin A (TSA). Concomitantly, NF-κB activation was involved in the induction of HDP expression by NaB. MAPK pathway inhibition also prevented pBD3 and pEP2C induction by NaB. Furthermore, NaB could still promote pBD3 and pEP2C expression and inhibit IL-6 production in the presence of the toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligand peptidoglycan. Moreover, TLR2 could be activated by both NaB and peptidoglycan, and blocking TLR2 expression suppressed HDP induction. Finally, we further showed that increased pBD3 could decrease cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18) and increase porcine claudin 15 (pCLDN15) contents, suggesting an immunoregulatory function of pBD3. In conclusion, this work paves the way for using HDACi-NaB to induce porcine kidney defense peptides while limiting the deleterious risk of an inflammatory response.
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