Imidazoline I2 receptor inhibitor idazoxan regulates the progression of hepatic fibrosis via Akt-Nrf2-Smad2/3 signaling pathway
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Li Xuanfei1,*, Chen Hao1,*, Yi Zhujun1, Liu Yanming2, Gong Jianping1
1Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing 400010, P. R. China
2Department of Gastroenterology, The Central Hospital of Wuhan, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430041, Hubei, P. R. China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Gong Jianping, email: [email protected]
Keywords: hepatic fibrosis, hepatic stellate cell, imidazoline I2 receptor, idazoxan, NF-E2-related factor 2
Received: November 10, 2016 Accepted: February 07, 2017 Published: February 18, 2017
Liver fibrosis is a global health problem and its relationship with imidazoline I2 receptor has not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the effects and underlying mechanisms of imidazoline I2 receptor (I2R) inhibitor idazoxan (IDA) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis. In vivo liver fibrosis in mice was induced by intraperitoneally injections of CCl4 for eight weeks, and in vitro studies were performed on activated LX2 cells treated with transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β). Our results showed that IDA significantly improved liver inflammation, ameliorated hepatic stellate cells activation and reduced collagen accumulation by suppressing the pro-fibrogenic signaling of TGF-β/Smad. Further investigation showed that IDA significantly balanced oxidative stress through improving the expressions and activities of anti-oxidant and detoxifying enzymes and activating Nrf2-the key defender against oxidative stress with anti-fibrotic potentials. Even more impressively, knock out of Nrf2 or suppression of Akt by perifosine (PE) eliminated the anti-oxidant and anti-fibrotic effects of IDA in vivo and in vitro, suggesting that Akt/Nrf2 constitutes a critical component of IDA's protective functions. Taken together, IDA exhibits potent effects against liver fibrosis via Akt-Nrf2-Smad2/3 signaling pathway, which suggests that specifically targeting I2R may be a potentially useful therapeutic strategy for liver fibrosis.
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