T-2 mycotoxin: toxicological effects and decontamination strategies
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Manish Adhikari1, Bhawana Negi2, Neha Kaushik3, Anupriya Adhikari4, Abdulaziz A. Al-Khedhairy5, Nagendra Kumar Kaushik1 and Eun Ha Choi1
1 Department of Electrical and Biological Physics, Plasma Bioscience Research Center, Kwangwoon University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
2 Department of Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering, G B Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, India
3 Department of Life Science, Hanyang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
4 Department of Chemistry, Kanya Gurukul Campus, Gurukul Kangri Vishwavidyalaya, Haridwar, India
5 Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
Eun Ha Choi, email:
Nagendra Kumar Kaushik, email:
Keywords: trichothecenes, oxidative damage, apoptosis, herbal antioxidant compounds, decontamination
Received: December 22, 2016 Accepted: February 08, 2017Published: February 16, 2017
Mycotoxins are highly diverse secondary metabolites produced in nature by a wide variety of fungus which causes food contamination, resulting in mycotoxicosis in animals and humans. In particular, trichothecenes mycotoxin produced by genus fusarium is agriculturally more important worldwide due to the potential health hazards they pose. It is mainly metabolized and eliminated after ingestion, yielding more than 20 metabolites with the hydroxy trichothecenes-2 toxin being the major metabolite. Trichothecene is hazardously intoxicating due to their additional potential to be topically absorbed, and their metabolites affect the gastrointestinal tract, skin, kidney, liver, and immune and hematopoietic progenitor cellular systems. Sensitivity to this type of toxin varying from dairy cattle to pigs, with the most sensitive endpoints being neural, reproductive, immunological and hematological effects. The mechanism of action mainly consists of the inhibition of protein synthesis and oxidative damage to cells followed by the disruption of nucleic acid synthesis and ensuing apoptosis. In this review, the possible hazards, historical significance, toxicokinetics, and the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects along with regulatory guidelines and recommendations pertaining to the trichothecene mycotoxin are discussed. Furthermore, various techniques utilized for toxin determination, pathophysiology, prophylaxis and treatment using herbal antioxidant compounds and regulatory guidelines and recommendations are reviewed. The prospects of the trichothecene as potential hazardous agents, decontamination strategies and future perspectives along with plausible therapeutic uses are comprehensively described.
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