Somatic molecular subtyping of prostate tumors from HOXB13 G84E carriers
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Tamara L. Lotan1,2, Alba Torres1, Miao Zhang3, Jeffrey J. Tosoian4, Liana B. Guedes1, Helen Fedor1, Jessica Hicks1, Charles M. Ewing4, Sarah D. Isaacs4, Dorhyun Johng4, Angelo M. De Marzo1,2,4, William B. Isaacs2,4
1Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
2Department of Oncology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
3Department of Pathology the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA
4Brady Urological Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA
Tamara L. Lotan, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: prostatic adenocarcinoma, HOXB13 G84E, familial prostate cancer, PTEN, ERG
Received: December 20, 2016 Accepted: January 21, 2017 Published: February 08, 2017
A recurrent germline mutation (G84E) in the HOXB13 gene is associated with early onset and family history-positive prostate cancer in patients of European descent, occurring in up to 5% of prostate cancer families. To date, the molecular features of prostate tumors occurring in HOXB13 G84E carriers have not been studied in a large cohort of patients. We identified 101 heterozygous carriers of G84E who underwent radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer between 1985 and 2011 and matched these men by race, age and tumor grade to 99 HOXB13 wild-type controls. Immunostaining for HOXB13, PTEN, ERG, p53 and SPINK1 as well as RNA in situ hybridization for ETV1/4/5 were performed using genetically validated assays. Tumors from G84E carriers generally expressed HOXB13 protein at a level comparable to benign and wild-type glands. ETS gene expression (either ERG or ETV1/4/5) was seen in 36% (36/101) of tumors from G84E carriers compared to 68% (65/96) of the controls (p < 0.0001). PTEN was lost in 11% (11/101) of G84E carriers compared to 25% (25/99) of the controls (p = 0.014). PTEN loss was enriched among ERG-positive compared to ERG-negative tumors in both groups of patients. Nuclear accumulation of the p53 protein, indicative of underlying TP53 missense mutations, was uncommon in both groups, occurring in 1% (1/101) of the G84E carriers versus 2% (2/92) of the controls (p = NS). Taken together, these data suggest that genes other than ERG and PTEN may drive carcinogenesis/progression in the majority of men with germline HOXB13 mutations.
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