Blockade of the malignant phenotype by β-subunit selective noncovalent inhibition of immuno- and constitutive proteasomes
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Bruno O. Villoutreix1,*, Abdel-Majid Khatib2,*, Yan Cheng3, Maria A. Miteva1, Xavier Maréchal3, Joëlle Vidal4, Michèle Reboud-Ravaux3
1INSERM, U 973, Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France
2INSERM, LAMC, U 1029, Pessac, France
3Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Université Paris 6, UMR 8256, ERL U1164, B2A, IBPS, Paris, France
4Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, UMR-CNRS 6226, Rennes, France
*These authors have contributed equally to this work
Bruno O. Villoutreix, email: [email protected], [email protected]
Michèle Reboud-Ravaux, email: [email protected]
Keywords: proteasomes, immunoproteasome, noncovalent inhibitors, piperazine, virtual screening
Received: October 20, 2016 Accepted: December 13, 2016 Published: January 02, 2017
A structure-based virtual screening of over 400,000 small molecules against the constitutive proteasome activity followed by in vitro assays led to the discovery of a family of proteasome inhibitors with a sulfonyl piperazine scaffold. Some members of this family of small non-peptidic inhibitors were found to act selectively on the β2 trypsin-like catalytic site with a preference for the immunoproteasome β2i over the constitutive proteasome β2c, while some act on the β5 site and post-acid site β1 of both, the immunoproteasome and the constitutive proteasome. Anti-proliferative and anti-invasive effects on tumor cells were investigated and observed for two compounds. We report novel chemical inhibitors able to interfere with the three types of active centers of both, the immuno- and constitutive proteasomes. Identifying and analyzing a novel scaffold with decorations able to shift the binders’ active site selectivity is essential to design a future generation of proteasome inhibitors able to distinguish the immunoproteasome from the constitutive proteasome.
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