Reducing Smad3/ATF4 was essential for Sirt1 inhibiting ER stress-induced apoptosis in mice brown adipose tissue
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Zhenjiang Liu1,*, Huihui Gu1,*, Lu Gan1, Yatao Xu1, Fei Feng1, Muhammad Saeed1, Chao Sun1
1College of Animal Science and Technology, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, Shaanxi, 712100, China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Chao Sun, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: Sirt, ATF, Smad, apoptosis, brown adipocytes
Received: November 21, 2016 Accepted: December 13, 2016 Published: December 20, 2016
Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) promotes adaptive thermogenesis by controlling the acetylation status of enzymes and transcriptional factors in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT). However, the effects of Sirt1 on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptosis of iBAT remain elusive. In this study, the mRNA levels of Sirt1 and thermogenesis genes were reduced but the genes related with ER stress were elevated in iBAT of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Moreover, ER stress further inhibited mRNA level of Sirt1 and triggered brown adipocyte apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Further analysis revealed that Sirt1 overexpression alleviated ER stress-induced brown adipocyte apoptosis by inhibiting Smad3 and ATF4. In addition, Smad3 bound to ATF4 promoter region and positively transcriptional regulation of ATF4. Our data also confirmed that Sirt1 reduced early apoptotic cells and blocked the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway by directly interacting with ATF4. Furthermore, Sirt1 attenuated tunicamycin-induced cold intolerance and elevating thermogenesis by inhibiting ER stress and apoptosis in iBAT. In summary, our data collectively revealed Sirt1 reduced ER stress and apoptosis of brown adipocyte in vivo and in vitro by inhibiting Smad3/ATF4 signal. These data reveal a novel mechanism that links Sirt1 to brown adipocyte apoptosis.
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