Research Papers: Pathology:

Effects of dietary vitamin E deficiency on systematic pathological changes and oxidative stress in fish

Kaiyu Wang _, Erlong Wang, Zhenyang Qin, Zhen Zhou, Yi Geng and Defang Chen

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Oncotarget. 2016; 7:83869-83879. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.13729

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Kaiyu Wang1,2,*, Erlong Wang1,*, Zhenyang Qin1,*, Zhen Zhou1, Yi Geng1,2 and Defang Chen3

1 Department of Basic Veterinary, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

2 Key Laboratory of Animal Disease and Human Health of Sichuan Province, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

3 Department of Aquaculture, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China

* These authors have contributed equally to this work

Correspondence to:

Kaiyu Wang, email:

Keywords: fish; vitamin E; deficiency; histopathology; ultrastructural pathology; Pathology Section

Received: September 07, 2016 Accepted: November 15, 2016 Published: November 30, 2016


The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary vitamin E deficiency on systematic pathological changes and oxidative stress in fish. A total of 320 healthy common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were randomized into four groups; the control group was fed a basal diet supplemented with 100 IUkg−1 of vitamin E, while the three experimental groups were fed the same basal diet with reduced vitamin E content (0, 25, or 50 IUkg−1). Findings showed that fish in the experimental groups mainly presented with sekoke disease, exophthalmia, leprnorthsis, and ascites. Histopathological and ultrastructural changes comprised nutritional myopathy with muscle fiber denaturation and necrosis, and multi-tissue organ swelling, degeneration, and necrosis. Compared with the control group, RBC count, hemoglobin content, vitamin E concentration, and superoxide dismutase activity were significantly lower in all three experimental groups. However, malondialdehyde content was considerably higher in experimental groups than in the control group. However, there was no difference in glutathione peroxidase activity among groups. In conclusion, dietary vitamin E deficiency (<100 IUkg−1) can cause severe injury and, in particular, oxidative damage in common carp. The oxidative damage might be a main influence caused by vitamin E deficiency in fish. These findings reveal the complete systematic pathological effect of vitamin E deficiency in common carp, which may be applicable to other fish and animals.

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