Oncotarget

Research Papers:

Cigarette smoking reduced renal function deterioration in hypertensive patients may be mediated by elevated homocysteine

Feifei Huang, Jie Chen, Xun Liu, Feng Han, Qingqing Cai, Guicheng Peng, Kun Zhang, Weiqing Chen, Jingfeng Wang and Hui Huang _

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Oncotarget. 2016; 7:86000-86010. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.13308

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Abstract

Feifei Huang1,2,*, Jie Chen2,3,*, Xun Liu4,*, Feng Han5,*, Qingqing Cai6, Guicheng Peng7, Kun Zhang1,2, Weiqing Chen8, Jingfeng Wang1,2, Hui Huang1,2

1Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Malignant Tumor Epigenetics and Gene Regulation, Department of Cardiology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China

2Laboratory of RNA and Major Diseases of Brain and Heart, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China

3Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China

4Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China

5Department of Ultrasound, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China

6Department of Medical Oncology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China

7Department of Internal Medicine, Dongguan Hengli Hospital, Dongguan, China

8Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China

*These authors contributed equally to this work

Correspondence to:

Hui Huang, email: [email protected]

Jingfeng Wang, email: [email protected]

Keywords: cigarette smoking, hypertension, renal function deterioration, homocysteine

Received: September 27, 2015     Accepted: November 02, 2016     Published: November 11, 2016

ABSTRACT

Elevated homocysteine (HCY) and smoking are both important risk factors for hypertensive patients. However, whether they have crossing effect on renal function deterioration of hypertensive patients and what is the underlying mechanism are unclear. In the present study, 3033 participants diagnosed as essential hypertension with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)> 30 ml/min/1.73 m2 from southern China were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. We collected the demographic and clinical data. In addition, the mediation effects were analyzed. The results showed that, comparing with non-smokers, smokers had significant higher levels of HCY (13.10 (11.20−16.87) vs. 11.00 (8.90−13.40) umol/L, P < 0.001) and lower eGFR (79.71 (66.83−91.05) vs. 82.89 (69.80−95.85) ml/min/1.73m2, P < 0.001). HCY levels and smoking were independently associated with decreased eGFR. Meanwhile, eGFR levels were significantly negatively correlated with HCY (P < 0.001), and this correlation might be stronger in current smokers. Current smoker consuming over 20 cigarettes per day would accelerate early renal function deterioration (OR = 1.859, P = 0.019). The mediation effects analysis further showed that the association between smoking and renal function deterioration was mediated by HCY. And elevated HCY was accounted for 56.94% of the estimated causal effect of smoking on renal function deterioration in hypertensive patients. Our findings indicated that cigarette smoking was associated with renal function deterioration in hypertensive patients, and the association between cigarette smoking and renal function deterioration was probably mediated by elevated HCY. Therefore, HCY-lowering therapy may be beneficial for renal function deterioration in hypertensive smoking patients.


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