Potential approaches to the treatment of Ewing’s sarcoma
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Hongjiu Yu1,2,*, Yonggui Ge1,*, Lianying Guo1,* and Lin Huang1
1 Department of Pathophysiology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning, P.R. China
2 Department of VIP, The First Affiliated Hospital, Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning, P.R. China
* These authors have contributed equally to this work
Lin Huang, email:
Keywords: Ewing’s sarcoma, targeted therapy, immunotherapy
Received: June 21, 2016 Accepted: October 03, 2016 Published: October 11, 2016
Ewing’s sarcoma (ES) is a highly aggressive and metastatic tumor in children and young adults caused by a chromosomal fusion between the Ewing sarcoma breakpoint region 1 (EWSR1) gene and the transcription factor FLI1 gene. ES is managed with standard treatments, including chemotherapy, surgery and radiation. Although the 5-year survival rate for primary ES has improved, the survival rate for ES patients with metastases or recurrence remains low. Several novel molecular targets in ES have recently been identified and investigated in preclinical and clinical settings, and targeting the function of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), the fusion protein EWS-FLI1 and mTOR has shown promise. There has also been increasing interest in the immune responses of ES patients. Immunotherapies using T cells, NK cells, cancer vaccines and monoclonal antibodies have been considered for ES, especially for recurrent patients. Because understanding the pathogenesis of ES is extremely important for the development of novel treatments, this review focuses on the mechanisms and functions of targeted therapies and immunotherapies in ES. It is anticipated that integrating the knowledge obtained from basic research and translational and clinical studies will lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of ES.
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