Mutational profiling of non-small-cell lung cancer patients resistant to first-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors using next generation sequencing
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Ying Jin1,2, Yang Shao3, Xun Shi1, Guangyuan Lou1, Yiping Zhang1, Xue Wu3, Xiaoling Tong3, Xinmin Yu1,4
1Department of Medical Oncology, Zhejiang Cancer Hospital, Hangzhou, China
2Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Radiation Oncology, Hangzhou, China
3Geneseeq Technology Inc., Toronto, Ontario, Canada
4Zhejiang Key Laboratory of Diagnosis and Treatment Technology of Thoracic Oncology, Hangzhou, China
Xinmin Yu, email: [email protected]
Keywords: non-small-cell lung cancer, epithelial growth factor receptor, tyrosine kinase inhibitor, drug resistance, next generation sequencing
Received: April 29, 2016 Accepted: July 28, 2016 Published: August 12, 2016
Patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) harboring sensitive epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations invariably develop acquired resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Identification of actionable genetic alterations conferring drug-resistance can be helpful for guiding the subsequent treatment decision. One of the major resistant mechanisms is secondary EGFR-T790M mutation. Other mechanisms, such as HER2 and MET amplifications, and PIK3CA mutations, were also reported. However, the mechanisms in the remaining patients are still unknown. In this study, we performed mutational profiling in a cohort of 83 NSCLC patients with TKI-sensitizing EGFR mutations at diagnosis and acquired resistance to three different first-generation EGFR TKIs using targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) of 416 cancer-related genes. In total, we identified 322 genetic alterations with a median of 3 mutations per patient. 61% of patients still exhibit TKI-sensitizing EGFR mutations, and 36% of patients acquired EGFR-T790M. Besides other known resistance mechanisms, we identified TET2 mutations in 12% of patients. Interestingly, we also observed SOX2 amplification in EGFR-T790M negative patients, which are restricted to Icotinib treatment resistance, a drug widely used in Chinese NSCLC patients. Our study uncovered mutational profiles of NSCLC patients with first-generation EGFR TKIs resistance with potential therapeutic implications.
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