BH3 mimetic Obatoclax (GX15-070) mediates mitochondrial stress predominantly via MCL-1 inhibition and induces autophagy-dependent necroptosis in human oral cancer cells
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Prasad Sulkshane1 and Tanuja Teni1
1Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research and Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre (TMC), Kharghar, Navi Mumbai-410210, Maharashtra, India
Tanuja Teni, email: [email protected]
Keywords: MCL-1, Obatoclax, autophagy, necroptosis, mitochondria
Received: December 26, 2015 Accepted: July 23, 2016 Published: August 05, 2016
We have previously reported overexpression of antiapoptotic MCL-1 protein in human oral cancers and its association with therapy resistance and poor prognosis, implying it to be a potential therapeutic target. Hence, we investigated the efficacy and mechanism of action of Obatoclax, a BH3 mimetic pan BCL-2 inhibitor in human oral cancer cell lines. All cell lines exhibited high sensitivity to Obatoclax with complete clonogenic inhibition at 200–400 nM concentration which correlated with their MCL-1 expression. Mechanistic insights revealed that Obatoclax induced a caspase-independent cell death primarily by induction of a defective autophagy. Suppression of autophagy by ATG5 downregulation significantly blocked Obatoclax-induced cell death. Further, Obatoclax induced interaction of p62 with key components of the necrosome RIP1K and RIP3K. Necrostatin-1 mediated inhibition of RIP1K significantly protected the cells from Obatoclax induced cell death. Moreover, Obatoclax caused extensive mitochondrial stress leading to their dysfunction. Interestingly, MCL-1 downregulation alone caused mitochondrial stress, highlighting its importance for mitochondrial homeostasis. We also demonstrated in vivo efficacy of Obatoclax against oral cancer xenografts and its synergism with ionizing radiation in vitro. Our studies thus suggest that Obatoclax induces autophagy-dependent necroptosis in oral cancer cells and holds a great promise in the improved management of oral cancer patients.
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