Nomogram and recursive partitioning analysis to predict overall survival in patients with stage IIB-III thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after esophagectomy
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Shufei Yu1,4, Wencheng Zhang2, Wenjie Ni1, Zefen Xiao1, Xin Wang1, Zongmei Zhou1, Qinfu Feng1, Dongfu Chen1, Jun Liang1, Dekang Fang3, Yousheng Mao3, Shugeng Gao3, Yexiong Li1, Jie He3
1Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute (Hospital), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, China
2Department of Radiation Oncology, Tianjing Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Tianjin 300000, China
3Department of Thoracic Surgery, Cancer Institute (Hospital), Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100021, China
4Department of Oncology, Beijing Chao-yang Hospital, Beijing 100000, China
Zefen Xiao, email: [email protected]
Keywords: esophageal carcinoma, esophagectomy, overall survival, nomogram, recursive partitioning analysis
Received: April 20, 2016 Accepted: July 10, 2016 Published: July 28, 2016
We have developed statistical models for predicting survival in patients with stage IIB–III thoracic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and assessing the efficacy of adjuvant treatment. From a retrospective review of 3,636 patients, we created a database of 1,004 patients with stage IIB–III thoracic ESCC who underwent esophagectomy with or without postoperative radiation. Using a multivariate Cox regression model, we assessed the prognostic impact of clinical and histological factors on overall survival (OS). Logistic analysis was performed to identify factors to include in a recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) to predict 5-year OS. The nomogram was evaluated internally based on the concordance index (C-index) and a calibration plot. The median survival time in the training dataset was 30.9 months, and the 5-year survival rate was 33.9%. T stage, differentiated grade, adjuvant treatment, tumor location, lymph node metastatic ratio (LNMR), and the presence of vascular carcinomatous thrombi were statistically significant predictors of 5-year OS. The C-index of the nomogram was 0.70 (95% CI 0.67–0.73). RPA resulted in a three-class stratification: class 1, LNMR ≤ 0.15 with adjuvant treatment; class 2, LNMR ≤ 0.15 without adjuvant treatment and LNMR > 0.15 with adjuvant treatment; and class 3, LNMR > 0.15 without adjuvant treatment. The three classes were statistically significant for OS (P < 0.001). Thus, the nomogram and RPA models predicted the prognosis of stage IIB–III ESCC patients and could be used in decision-making and clinical trials.
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