Microenvironment drug resistance in multiple myeloma: emerging new players
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Lucia Di Marzo1,*, Vanessa Desantis1,*, Antonio Giovanni Solimando1, Simona Ruggieri2, Tiziana Annese2, Beatrice Nico2, Ruggiero Fumarulo3, Angelo Vacca1 and Maria Antonia Frassanito3
1 Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, Internal Medicine Section, University of Bari Medical School, Bari, Italy
2 Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neurosciences and Sensory Organs, University of Bari Medical School, Bari, Italy
3 Department of Biomedical Sciences and Human Oncology, General Pathology Section, Bari, Italy
* These authors have contributed equally to this work
Angelo Vacca, email:
Keywords: cancer-associated fibroblasts, drug resistance, exosomes, microRNAs, multiple myeloma
Received: May 05, 2016 Accepted: July 11, 2016 Published: September 13, 2016
Multiple myeloma (MM) drug resistance (DR) is a multistep transformation process based on a powerful interplay between bone marrow stromal cells and MM cells that allows the latter to escape anti-myeloma therapies. Here we present an overview of the role of the bone marrow microenvironment in both soluble factors-mediated drug resistance (SFM-DR) and cell adhesion-mediated drug resistance (CAM-DR), focusing on the role of new players, namely miRNAs, exosomes and cancer-associated fibroblasts.
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