High expression of WISP1 in colon cancer is associated with apoptosis, invasion and poor prognosis
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Jianghong Wu1,2,*, Ziwen Long1,2,*, Hong Cai1,2, Chunyan Du1,2, Xiaowen Liu1,2, Shengjia Yu1,2, Yanong Wang1,2
1Department of Gastric Cancer and Soft Tissue Sarcoma, Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai 200032, China
2Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032, China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Yanong Wang, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: WISP1, colon cancer, apoptosis, invasion, poor prognosis
Received: January 17, 2016 Accepted: March 31, 2016 Published: July 08, 2016
Colon cancer (CC) likes many epithelial-derived cancers, resulting from a complex tumorigenic process. However, the exactly mechanisms of development and progression of CC are still unknown. In this study, integrated analysis in the GSE33113 and Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center Hospital datasets revealed that WISP1 expression was significantly increased in CC cases, positivity correlated with the advanced pathologic stage and a poor prognosis was more likely in CC patients with higher levels of WISP1. Downregulation of WISP1 inhibited cell proliferation and invasion through increasing apoptosis and blocking cell cycle at G1 phase in CC LOVO and RKO cells. Besides, Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) revealed that relative genes involved in the Cell adhesion molecules and Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathways were enriched in WISP1-higher expression patients. Western blot analysis showed that Cell adhesion molecules pathway associated genes (ICAM- 1, VCAM-1, SDC2 and CDH2) and Cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathway associated genes (VEGFC, CCL18, CXCR4 and TGFBR1) were also modulated by WISP1 downregulation. Then, we found that the protein β-catenin was identified as a binding partner of WISP1 and mediated the functions of WISP1 through promoting cell proliferation and invasion in LOVO and RKO cells. Further in vivo tumor formation study in nude mice indicated that inhibition of WISP1 delayed the progress of tumor formation and inhibited PCNA expression. These results indicate that WISP1 could act as an oncogene and may serve as a promising therapeutic strategy for colon cancer.
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