Effect of perineoplasm perinephric adipose tissues on migration of clear cell renal cell carcinoma cells: a potential role of WNT signaling
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Xiaolin Zi1, Achim Lusch1, Christopher A. Blair1, Zhamshid Okhunov1, Noriko N. Yokoyama1, Shuman Liu1, Molly Baker1, Victor Huynh1, Jaime Landman1
1Department of Urology, University of California, Irvine, Orange CA 92868, USA
Jaime Landman, email: Landmanj@uci.edu
Xiaolin Zi, email: email@example.com
Keywords: migration, proliferation, fat, renal cell carcinoma, WNT
Received: May 02, 2016 Accepted: June 18, 2016 Published: July 07, 2016
To investigate the cellular and molecular interactions between clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and perinephric adipose tissue (PAT), perineoplasm PAT, PAT away from the neoplasm, renal sinus and subcutaneous adipose tissues were collected at the time of renal surgery for renal masses and conditioned medium (CM) was generated from 62 patients. Perineoplasm PAT CMs from 44 out of 62 (about 71%) of patients with ccRCC or benign renal diseases (e.g. oncocytomas, angiomyolipomas, multicystic kidney, interstitial fibrosis, etc.) enhanced the migration of CaKi-2 cells. Perineoplasm PAT CMs from ccRCC significantly increased migration of ACHN and CaKi-2 cells by ~8.2 and ~2.4 folds, respectively, relative to those from benign renal diseases, whereas there is no significant difference in migration between ccRCC and benign renal diseases in CMs collected from culturing PAT away from neoplasm, renal sinus and subcutaneous adipose tissues. High Fuhrman Grade was associated with increased migration of Caki-2 cells by perineoplasm PAT CMs. Perineoplasm PATs from pT3 RCCs overexpressed multiple WNTs and their CMs exhibited higher WNT/ß-catenin activity and increased the migration of Caki-2 cells compared to CMs from benign neoplasms. Addition of secreted WNT inhibitory factor-1 recombinant protein into perineoplasm PAT CMs completely blocked the cell migration. These results indicate that WNT related factors from perineoplasm PAT may promote progression of local ccRCC to locally advanced (pT3) disease by increasing ccRCC cell mobility.
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