Research Papers:

National incidence of autoimmune liver diseases and its relationship with the human development index

Hong-Ying Pan _, Yi-Ning Dai, Ji-Na Zheng, Ke-Qing Shi, Sven Van Poucke, Hai Zou and Ming-Hua Zheng

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Oncotarget. 2016; 7:46273-46282. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.10090

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Hong-Ying Pan1, Yi-Ning Dai1, Ji-Na Zheng2,3, Ke-Qing Shi2,4, Sven Van Poucke5, Hai Zou1, Ming-Hua Zheng2,4

1Department of Infection Diseases, Zhejiang Provincial People's Hospital, Hangzhou, China

2Department of Hepatology, Liver Research Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China

3School of The First Clinical Medical Sciences, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China

4Institute of Hepatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, China

5Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care, Emergency Medicine and Pain Therapy, Ziekenhuis Oost-Limburg, Genk, Belgium

Correspondence to:

Hai Zou, email: [email protected]

Ming-Hua Zheng, email: [email protected]

Keywords: autoimmune liver diseases, human development index, autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis

Received: April 23, 2016     Accepted: June 02, 2016     Published: June 15, 2016


Objective: Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and immunoglobulin G4 related cholangitis represent the major autoimmune liver diseases (AILD). However, the relationship between AILD incidence and socioeconomic development levels is yet to be explored.

Results: A total of 43 studies were included. There was a positive but not significant correlation between the PBC incidence and HDI on a global level (r=0.348, P=0.082). However, in Europe, a significantly positive correlation existed between the PBC incidence and HDI (r=0.455, P=0.044). No statistical correlation between PSC incidence and HDI was observed (r=0.116, P=0.706). The incidence of AIH revealed a positive correlation with the national HDI both globally (r=0.638, P=0.014) and in Europe (r=0.644, P=0.045). Moreover, the PBC incidence demonstrated a positive correlation with the health index (r=0.422, P=0.036), but a negative correlation with the education index (r= -0.650, P<0.01). Moreover, the income index presented a positive correlation with both the PSC incidence (r=0.599, P=0.031) and the AIH incidence (r=0.649, P=0.012).

Methods: PubMed was searched to identify relevant epidemiological studies on AILD. The human development index (HDI) was applied as an indicator for socioeconomic development. HDI data were obtained and calculated based on the 2014 Human Development Report. Pearson coefficient and linear regression analysis were conducted to estimate the correlation between incidence and HDI.

Conclusions: There is positive association between the national incidence of AILD and the socioeconomic status, as measured by HDI. In less-developed countries, the incidence of AILD, especially PBC and AIH, might be less common.

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