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Oncotarget | Risk factors for breast cancer brain metastases: a systematic review


FOR IMMEDIATE RELEASE
2020-02-18

Oncotarget Volume 11, Issue 6 reported that A systematic literature search of EMBASE and MEDLINE was conducted to elucidate the current state of knowledge on known and novel prognostic factors associated with 1) the risk for BCBM and 2) the time to brain metastases (TTBM).

Of these, 69 studies reported risk factors of BCBM, 46 factors associated with the TTBM and twenty studies examined variables for both outcomes.

Young age, estrogen receptor negativity, overexpression of human epidermal factor, and higher presenting stage, histological grade, tumor size, Ki67 labeling index and nodal involvement were consistently found to be independent risk factors of BCBM.

Dr. Kyriacos Kyriacou from both the Department of Electron Microscopy/Molecular Pathology and the Cyprus School of Molecular Medicine at The Cyprus Institute of Neurology and Genetics said, "Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women worldwide, accounting for over 1.67 million new cases annually."

"Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among women worldwide, accounting for over 1.67 million new cases annually."

- Dr. Kyriacos Kyriacou, Department of Electron Microscopy/Molecular Pathology and the The Cyprus School of Molecular Medicine

The current treatment paradigm for patients with BCBM consists of multimodal approaches that include whole brain radiation therapy, surgery, and/or stereotactic radiosurgery, depending on the patients performance status and the number, size and localization of brain lesions.

According to a large multi-institutional study which included BC patients from clinical trials, the 10-year incidence of BM was estimated at 5.2%, though a number of clinical and demographic features were reported to heighten the risk for BCBM.

Figure 1: Flowchart of study selection.

An in depth understanding of the pathogenic drivers of BCBM could guide future research directions and aid the identification of patients who may benefit from medical interventions such as regular MRI screening, prophylactic cranial irradiation or use of treatment regimens with better brain penetration.

The present study therefore aims to provide a systematic review of prognostic studies pertaining to BCBM and highlight the current state of knowledge on known and novel prognostic factors associated with:

  1. the risk for BCBM and
  2. the TTBM

The Kyriacou Research Team concluded in their Oncotarget Research Paper, "an accurate prediction of BC patients at high risk of developing BM would entail the collaboration of a multidisciplinary team of expertise. In this context, a multilevel diagnostic tool integrating both clinical and laboratory variables would be necessary for optimal risk stratification and management of patients."

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Full text - https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.27453

Correspondence to - Kyriacos Kyriacou - kyriacos@cing.ac.cy

Keywords - breast cancer, brain metastases, risk factors, biomarkers

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