Research Papers:

Multi-kinase inhibitors interact with sildenafil and ERBB1/2/4 inhibitors to kill tumor cells in vitro and in vivo

Laurence Booth, Thomas Albers, Jane L. Roberts, Mehrad Tavallai, Andrew Poklepovic, Iryna O. Lebedyeva and Paul Dent _

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Oncotarget. 2016; 7:40398-40417. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.9752

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Laurence Booth1, Thomas Albers3, Jane L. Roberts1, Mehrad Tavallai1, Andrew Poklepovic2, Iryna O. Lebedyeva3, Paul Dent1

1Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA

2Department of Medicine, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23298, USA

3Department of Chemistry and Physics, Augusta University, Summerville Campus, Augusta GA 30912, USA

Correspondence to:

Paul Dent, email: [email protected]

Keywords: sorafenib, pazopanib, chaperones, ERBB, PI3K

Received: April 25, 2016     Accepted: May 20, 2016     Published: May 31, 2016


We have recently demonstrated that multi-kinase inhibitors such as sorafenib and pazopanib can suppress the detection of chaperones by in situ immuno-fluorescence, which is further enhanced by phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors. Sorafenib and pazopanib inhibited the HSP90 ATPase activity with IC50 values of ~1.0 μM and ~75 nM, respectively. Pazopanib docked in silico with two possible poses into the HSP90 ATP binding pocket. Pazopanib and sildenafil combined to reduce the total protein levels of HSP1H/p105 and c-MYC and to reduce their co-localization. Sorafenib/pazopanib combined with sildenafil in a [GRP78+HSP27] –dependent fashion to: (i) profoundly activate an eIF2α/Beclin1 pathway; (ii) profoundly inactivate mTOR and increase ATG13 phosphorylation, collectively resulting in the formation of toxic autophagosomes. In a fresh PDX isolate of NSCLC combined knock down of [ERBB1+ERBB3] or use of the ERBB1/2/4 inhibitor afatinib altered cell morphology, enhanced ATG13 phosphorylation, inactivated NFκB, and further enhanced [sorafenib/pazopanib + sildenafil] lethality. Identical data to that with afatinib were obtained knocking down PI3K p110α/β or using buparlisib, copanlisib or the specific p110α inhibitor BYL719. Afatinib adapted NSCLC clones were resistant to buparlisib or copanlisib but were more sensitive than control clones to [sorafenib + sildenafil] or [pazopanib + sildenafil]. Lapatinib significantly enhanced the anti-tumor effect of [regorafenib + sildenafil] in vivo; afatinib and BYL719 enhanced the anti-tumor effects of [sorafenib + sildenafil] and [pazopanib] in vivo, respectively.

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