Proteomics and peptidomics: moving toward precision medicine in urological malignancies
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Ashley Di Meo1,2, Maria D. Pasic2,3 and George M. Yousef1,2
1 Department of Laboratory Medicine, and The Keenan Research Centre for Biomedical Science at The Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St. Michael’s Hospital, Toronto, ON, Canada
2 Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada
3 Department of Laboratory Medicine, St. Joseph’s Health Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada
George M. Yousef, email:
Keywords: prostate cancer; kidney cancer; bladder cancer; personalized medicine; tumor markers
Received: January 26, 2016 Accepted: April 16, 2016 Published: April 22, 2016
Urological malignancies are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Advances in early detection, diagnosis, prognosis and prediction of treatment response can significantly improve patient care. Proteomic and peptidomic profiling studies are at the center of kidney, prostate and bladder cancer biomarker discovery and have shown great promise for improved clinical assessment. Mass spectrometry (MS) is the most widely employed method for proteomic and peptidomic analyses. A number of MS platforms have been developed to facilitate accurate identification of clinically relevant markers in various complex biological samples including tissue, urine and blood. Furthermore, protein profiling studies have been instrumental in the successful introduction of several diagnostic multimarker tests into the clinic. In this review, we will provide a brief overview of high-throughput technologies for protein and peptide based biomarker discovery. We will also examine the current state of kidney, prostate and bladder cancer biomarker research as well as review the journey toward successful clinical implementation.
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