Osteoprotegerin rich tumor microenvironment: implications in breast cancer
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Sudeshna Goswami1 and Neelam Sharma-Walia1
1 H. M. Bligh Cancer Research Laboratories, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chicago Medical School, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, Illinois, USA
Neelam Sharma-Walia, email:
Keywords: osteoprotegerin, NF-kB, COX-2, PGE2, FASN
Received: February 23, 2016 Accepted: March 31, 2016 Published: April 08, 2016
Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a soluble decoy receptor for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL). It belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF). OPG was initially discovered to contribute to homeostasis of bone turnover due to its capability of binding to receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kB). However, apart from bone turnover, OPG plays important and diverse role(s) in many biological functions. Besides having anti-osteoclastic activity, OPG is thought to exert a protective anti-apoptotic action in OPG-expressing tumors by overcoming the physiologic mechanism of tumor surveillance exerted by TRAIL. Along with inhibiting TRAIL induced apoptosis, it can induce proliferation by binding to various cell surface receptors and thus turning on the canonical cell survival and proliferative pathways. OPG also induces angiogenesis, one of the hallmarks of cancer, thus facilitating tumor growth. Recently, the understanding of OPG and its different roles has been augmented substantially. This review is aimed at providing a very informative overview as to how OPG affects cancer progression especially breast cancer.
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