Research Papers: Immunology:

Rainbow trout CK9, a CCL25-like ancient chemokine that attracts and regulates B cells and macrophages, the main antigen presenting cells in fish

Carolina Aquilino, Aitor G. Granja, Rosario Castro, Tiehui Wang, Beatriz Abos, David Parra, Christopher J. Secombes and Carolina Tafalla _

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Oncotarget. 2016; 7:17547-17564. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.8163

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Carolina Aquilino1, Aitor G. Granja1, Rosario Castro1, Tiehui Wang2, Beatriz Abos1, David Parra3, Christopher J. Secombes2 and Carolina Tafalla1

1 Animal Health Research Center (CISA-INIA), Valdeolmos (Madrid), Spain

2 Scottish Fish Immunology Research Centre, School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK

3 Animal Physiology Unit, Department of Cell Biology, Physiology and Immunology, School of Biosciences, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Valles, Spain

Correspondence to:

Carolina Tafalla, email:

Keywords: rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss, chemokines, CK9, CCL25, B cells, Immunology and Microbiology Section, Immune response, Immunity

Received: March 04, 2016 Accepted: March 07, 2016 Published: March 17, 2016


CK9 is a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) CC chemokine phylogenetically related to mammalian CCL25. Although CK9 is known to be transcriptionally regulated in response to inflammation particularly in mucosal tissues, its functionality has never been revealed. In the current work, we have demonstrated that CK9 is chemoattractant for antigen presenting cells (APCs) expressing major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) on the cell surface. Among these APCs, CK9 has a strong chemotactic capacity for both B cells (IgM+ and IgT+) and macrophages. Along with its chemotactic capacities, CK9 modulated the MHC II turnover of B lymphocytes and up-regulated the phagocytic capacity of both IgM+ cells and macrophages. Although CK9 had no lymphoproliferative effects, it increased the survival of IgT+ lymphocytes. Furthermore, we have established that the chemoattractant capacity of CK9 is strongly increased after pre-incubation of leukocytes with a T-independent antigen, whereas B cell receptor (BCR) cross-linking strongly abrogated their capacity to migrate to CK9, indicating that CK9 preferentially attracts B cells at the steady state or under BCR-independent stimulation. These results point to CK9 being a key regulator of B lymphocyte trafficking in rainbow trout, able to modulate innate functions of teleost B lymphocytes and macrophages.

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