Research Papers:

Repeated observation of immune gene sets enrichment in women with non-small cell lung cancer

Jhajaira M. Araujo, Alexandra Prado, Nadezhda K. Cardenas, Mayer Zaharia, Richard Dyer, Franco Doimi, Leny Bravo, Luis Pinillos, Zaida Morante, Alfredo Aguilar, Luis A. Mas, Henry L. Gomez, Carlos S. Vallejos, Christian Rolfo _ and Joseph A. Pinto

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Oncotarget. 2016; 7:20282-20292. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.7943

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Jhajaira M. Araujo1, Alexandra Prado1, Nadezhda K. Cardenas2, Mayer Zaharia1, Richard Dyer3, Franco Doimi3, Leny Bravo2, Luis Pinillos1, Zaida Morante4, Alfredo Aguilar1, Luis A. Mas1, Henry L. Gomez1, Carlos S. Vallejos1, Christian Rolfo5, Joseph A. Pinto1

1Unidad de Investigación Básica y Traslacional, Oncosalud-AUNA, San Borja, Lima 41, Peru

2Escuela de Medicina Humana, Universidad Privada San Juan Bautista, Chorrillos, Lima 09, Peru

3Departamento de Patología, Oncosalud-AUNA, San Borja, Lima 41, Peru

4Departamento de Medicina Oncológica, Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplásicas, Surquillo, Lima 41, Peru

5Phase I – Early Clinical Trials Unit, Antwerp University Hospital, Antwerp, Edegem 2650, Belgium

Correspondence to:

Christian Rolfo, e-mail: [email protected]

Keywords: non-small cell lung cancer, gender, GSEA, CIBERSORT, immune gene sets

Received: November 19, 2015     Accepted: February 11, 2016     Published: March 06, 2016


There are different biological and clinical patterns of lung cancer between genders indicating intrinsic differences leading to increased sensitivity to cigarette smoke-induced DNA damage, mutational patterns of KRAS and better clinical outcomes in women while differences between genders at gene-expression levels was not previously reported. Here we show an enrichment of immune genes in NSCLC in women compared to men. We found in a GSEA analysis (by biological processes annotated from Gene Ontology) of six public datasets a repeated observation of immune gene sets enrichment in women. “Immune system process”, “immune response”, “defense response”, “cellular defense response” and “regulation of immune system process” were the gene sets most over-represented while APOBEC3G, APOBEC3F, LAT, CD1D and CCL5 represented the top-five core genes. Characterization of immune cell composition with the platform CIBERSORT showed no differences between genders; however, there were differences when tumor tissues were compared to normal tissues. Our results suggest different immune responses in NSCLC between genders that could be related with the different clinical outcome.

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PII: 7943