Cholesterol consumption and risk of endometrial cancer: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies
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Ting-Ting Gong1, Da Li1, Qi-Jun Wu2, Ya-Zhu Wang3
1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China
2Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China
3Department of Hematology, The First Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, China
Ya-Zhu Wang, e-mail: email@example.com
Keywords: cholesterol, endometrial cancer, epidemiology, meta-analysis
Received: October 29, 2015 Accepted: January 29, 2016 Published: March 04, 2016
In vivo and in vitro studies have indicated the link of cholesterol consumption and endometrial cancer risk, however, previous observational studies have yielded inconsistent results. Additionally, a previous meta-analysis published in 2007 found limited evidence of aforementioned association. Therefore, we performed the dose-response meta-analysis to address this concern. Studies were identified using the PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science databases from the database inception to the end of June 2015 as well as by examining the references of retrieved articles. Two authors independently performed the eligibility evaluation and data extraction. The summary risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were summarized by the random-effects models. One cohort and nine case-control studies were included in the dose-response analyses. Risk of endometrial cancer increased by 6% for 100 mg/day increment in the dietary consumption of cholesterol (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.00–1.12), with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 64.2, P = 0.003). When stratified by study design, the result was significant in case-control studies (OR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.01–1.13). Additionally, although the direction of the associations were consistent in the subgroup analyses stratified by study characteristics and adjustment for potential confounders, not all of them showed statistical significance. In summary, findings of the present dose-response meta-analysis partly support the positive association between dietary cholesterol consumption and risk of endometrial cancer. Since only one cohort study was included, more prospective studies and pooled analysis of observational studies are warranted to confirm our findings in the future.
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