Discovery of plant extracts that greatly delay yeast chronological aging and have different effects on longevity-defining cellular processes
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Vicky Lutchman1,*, Younes Medkour1,*, Eugenie Samson1, Anthony Arlia-Ciommo1, Pamela Dakik1, Berly Cortes1, Rachel Feldman1, Sadaf Mohtashami1, Mélissa McAuley1, Marisa Chancharoen1, Belise Rukundo1, Éric Simard2, Vladimir I. Titorenko1
1Department of Biology, Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec H4B 1R6, Canada
2Idunn Technologies Inc., Rosemere, Quebec J7A 4A5, Canada
*These authors contributed equally tothis work
Vladimir I. Titorenko, e-mail: email@example.com
Keywords: yeast, cellular aging, longevity, plant extracts, aging-delaying chemical compounds
Received: January 14, 2016 Accepted: February 11, 2016 Published: February 24, 2016
We discovered six plant extracts that increase yeast chronological lifespan to a significantly greater extent than any of the presently known longevity-extending chemical compounds. One of these extracts is the most potent longevity-extending pharmacological intervention yet described. We show that each of the six plant extracts is a geroprotector which delays the onset and decreases the rate of yeast chronological aging by eliciting a hormetic stress response. We also show that each of these extracts has different effects on cellular processes that define longevity in organisms across phyla. These effects include the following: 1) increased mitochondrial respiration and membrane potential; 2) augmented or reduced concentrations of reactive oxygen species; 3) decreased oxidative damage to cellular proteins, membrane lipids, and mitochondrial and nuclear genomes; 4) enhanced cell resistance to oxidative and thermal stresses; and 5) accelerated degradation of neutral lipids deposited in lipid droplets. Our findings provide new insights into mechanisms through which chemicals extracted from certain plants can slow biological aging.
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