Tongxinluo mitigates atherogenesis by regulating angiogenic factors and inhibiting vasa vasorum neovascularization in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice
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Lianyue Ma1,2, Mei Ni1, Panpan Hao1, Huixia Lu1, Xiaoyan Yang1, Xingli Xu1, Cheng Zhang1, Shanying Huang1, Yuxia Zhao1, Xiaoling Liu1,2, Yun Zhang1,2
1The Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Shandong 250012, P.R. China
2The State and Shandong Province Joint Key Laboratory of Translational Cardiovascular Medicine, Qilu Hospital, Shandong University, Shandong 250012, P.R. China
Xiaoling Liu, e-mail: email@example.com
Yun Zhang, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: atherogenesis, vasa vasorum, neovascularization, Tongxinluo
Received: November 12, 2015 Accepted: February 08, 2016 Published: February 18, 2016
Vasa vasorum (VV) neovascularization contributes to atherogenesis and its expansion and distribution is correlated with intraplaque expression of angiogenic factors. The present study investigated the roles of Tongxinluo (TXL), a traditional Chinese medication, on VV proliferation and atherogenesis. In vitro, TXL pre-treatment reversed the tumor necrosis factor-a (TNF-a) induced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) and angiopoietin-1 (ANGPT-1) but not ANGPT-2, leading to increased ratio of ANGPT-1 to ANGPT-2. Consistently, TXL treatment (at a dosage of 0.38, 0.75, 1.5 g/kg/d, respectively) decreased the expression of VEGF-A while increased that of ANGPT-1 in early atherosclerotic lesions of apolipoprotein E deficient (apoE-/-) mice. On aortic ring assay, microvessels sprouting from aortas were significantly inhibited in TXL-treated mice. Moreover, VV neovascularization in plaques was markedly reduced with TXL treatment. Histological and morphological analysis demonstrated that TXL treatment reduced plaque burden, plaque size and changed the plaque composition. These data suggest that TXL inhibits early atherogenesis through regulating angiogenic factor expression and inhibiting VV proliferation in atherosclerotic plaque. Our study shed new light on the anti-atherosclerotic effect of TXL.
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