CXCR6-CXCL16 axis promotes prostate cancer by mediating cytoskeleton rearrangement via Ezrin activation and αvβ3 integrin clustering
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Rajesh Singh1, Neeraj Kapur1, Hina Mir1, Nalinaksha Singh1, James W. Lillard Jr.1, Shailesh Singh1
1Department of Microbiology, Biochemistry & Immunology, Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA, USA
Shailesh Singh, e-mail: shsingh[email protected]
Keywords: prostate cancer, CXCR6, CXCL16, Ezrin, αvβ3 integrin
Received: September 08, 2015 Accepted: January 06, 2016 Published: January 19, 2016
Cytoskeletal rearrangement is required for migration and invasion, which are the key steps of cancer metastasis. Ezrin and integrin co-ordinate these processes by regulating cellular adhesion and cytoskeletal polymerization-depolymerization. It is also well established that chemokine-chemokine receptor axis plays a crucial role in regulating cancer cell migration and invasion. In this study, we show involvement of CXC chemokine receptor 6 (CXCR6) and its only natural ligand CXCL16 in pathobiology of prostate cancer (PCa). CXCR6 is highly expressed in PCa tissues and cell lines (LNCaP and PC3), relative to normal tissue and cells. CXCR6 expression in PCa tissues correlated with higher Gleason score. Similarly, aggressive PCa cells (PC3) show high CXCR6 compared to less aggressive LNCaP. Besides, PC3 cells show higher MMPs expression compared to LNCaP cells following CXCL16 stimulation. Intriguingly, CXCR6-CXCL16 interaction in PCa cells promotes Ezrin activation, αvβ3 integrin clustering and capping at the leading edge in FAK/PI3K/PKC dependent manner, thereby modifying cellular adhesion as well as motility. Together these results demonstrate that CXCL16 stimulation changes cytoskeletal dynamics resulting in enhanced migration, invasion and adhesion to endothelial cells, ultimately enabling PCa cells to achieve their metastatic goal.
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