CD68 and interleukin 13, prospective immune markers for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma prognosis prediction
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Jian Li1,2,*, Bao-Zhu Zhang1,*, Yan-Ru Qin3, Jiong Bi4, Hai-Bo Liu1,5, Yan Li1, Mu-Yan Cai1,6, Stephanie Ma7, Kwok Wah Chan8, Dan Xie1, Xin-Yuan Guan1,9
1State Key Laboratory of Oncology in Southern China, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou, China
2Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Malignant Tumor Epigenetics and Gene Regulation, Sun Yat-Sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China
3Department of Clinical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, China
4Department of Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China
5Key Laboratory for Major Obstetric Diseases of Guangdong Province, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China
6Department of Pathology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou, China
7Department of Anatomy, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
8Department of Pathology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
9Department of Clinical Oncology, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Xin-Yuan Guan, e-mail: email@example.com
Keywords: ESCC, IL-13, macrophage, prognosis, CD68
Received: August 14, 2015 Accepted: December 01, 2015 Published: January 12, 2016
Purpose: Oncology immunity was reported to play a key role in cancer development and progression, so we investigated the prediction role of several immune markers in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients after operation in this study.
Patients and Methods: 66 primary ESCC tumor tissues and four sets of tissue microarrays including 705 primary ESCC tumor tissues from four centers were collected and analyzed. Expressions of several immune markers in ESCC tumor tissue were detected with immunohistochemistry staining. Their distribution densities were analyzed with InForm™ 2.0.1 software. All statistic analyses were performed with SPSS16.0 and Stata version 10.0.
Results: Survival analyses assessed by Kaplan-Meier plots and log-rank tests demonstrated that densities of CD68 and interleukin 13 (IL-13) in tumor stroma were positively correlated with the overall survival of ESCC patients after operation (p < 0.01 for CD68, p < 0.001 for IL-13). Further, a model based on tumor stroma densities of CD68 and IL-13 was constructed and it could significantly classify patients with poor or good prognosis. This model could further identify high-risk group and low-risk group at the same Tumor lymph Nodes Metastases (TNM) stage. Lastly, a more accuracy model based on TNM stage, densities of CD68 and IL-13 was constructed to predict the prognosis of ESCC patient after operation.
Conclusion: Combining the TNM staging system and densities of CD68 and IL-13 could substantially improve the prognosis prediction accuracy of ESCC patient after operation, which might be an excellent tool for selecting patients for individualized therapy in future.
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