Tumor-derived exosomes in cancer progression and treatment failure
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Shaorong Yu1,*, Haixia Cao1,*, Bo Shen1 and Jifeng Feng1
1Research Center for Clinical Oncology, Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Cancer Hospital, Jiangsu Cancer Hospital and Jiangsu Institute of Cancer Research, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China
*These authors have contributed equally to this work
Jifeng Feng, email: email@example.com
Keywords: exosomes, cancer, treatment
Received: May 27, 2015 Accepted: August 26, 2015 Published: October 07, 2015
Exosomes have diameter within the range of 30-100nm and spherical to cup-shaped nanoparticles with specific surface molecular characteristics, such as CD9 and CD63. These vesicles are present in nearly all human body fluids, including blood plasma/serum, saliva, breast milk, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, semen, and particularly enriched in tumor microenvironment. Exosomes contain multiple proteins, DNA, mRNA, miRNA, long non-coding RNA, and even genetic materials of viruses/prions. These materials are biochemically and functionally distinct and can be transferred to a recipient cell where they regulate protein expression and signaling pathways. Recently, exosomes are demonstrated to have a close relationship with tumor development and metastasis. Exosomes influence therapeutic effect in cancer patients. In this review, we describe the biogenesis, composition, and function of exosomes. The mechanism on how tumor-derived exosomes contribute to cancer progression and clinical treatment failure is also described, with special focus on their potential applications in cancer therapy.
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