Polarized cell migration induces cancer type-specific CD133/integrin/Src/Akt/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling required for maintenance of cancer stem cell properties
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Ying-Jhen Su1,*, Wei-Hsin Lin1,2,*, Yi-Wen Chang1,*, Kuo-Chen Wei3, Chi-Lung Liang1, Shin-Cheh Chen4, Jia-Lin Lee1,5
1Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan
2Department of Orthopedics, National Taiwan University Hospital Hsin-Chu Branch, Hsinchu, Taiwan
3Department of Neurosurgery, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan
4Department of Surgery, Chang-Gung Memorial Hospital, Linkou, Taiwan
5Department of Medical Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan
*These authors have contributed equally to this work
Jia-Lin Lee, e-mail: email@example.com
Keywords: β-catenin, cancer stem cell, CD133, cell surface marker, extracellular matrix
Received: May 05, 2015 Accepted: October 09, 2015 Published: October 19, 2015
CD133 is widely used as a surface marker to isolate cancer stem cells (CSCs). Here we show that in CSCs CD133 contributes to β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation and to the self-renewal capacity of sphere-forming and side-population (SP) cells in cell lines from brain, colon and lung cancers, but not gastric or breast cancers. In chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, β-catenin binding to the proximal promoter regions of ITGA2-4 and ITGA10-11 in brain, colon and lung cancer cell lines could be triggered by CD133, and β-catenin also bound to the proximal promoter regions of ITGB6 and ITGB8 in cell lines from gastric and breast cancers. CD133 thus induces β-catenin binding and transcriptional activation of diverse targets that are cancer type-specific. Cell migration triggered by wounding CD133+ cells cultured on ECM-coated dishes can induce polarity and lipid raft coalescence, enhancing CD133/integrin signaling and asymmetric cell division. In response to directional cues, integrins, Src and the Par complex were enriched in lipid rafts, and the assembly and activation of an integrated CD133-integrin-Par signaling complex was followed by Src/Akt/GSK3β signaling. The subsequent increase and nuclear translocation of β-catenin may be a regulatory switch to increase drug resistance and stemness properties. Collectively, these findings 1) indicate that a polarized cell migration-induced CD133/integrin/Src/Akt/GSK3β/β-catenin axis is required for maintenance of CSC properties, 2) establish a function for CD133 and 3) support the rationale for targeting CD133 in cancer treatment.
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