Breast cancer associated a2 isoform vacuolar ATPase immunomodulates neutrophils: potential role in tumor progression
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Safaa A. Ibrahim1,2, Gajendra K. Katara1, Arpita Kulshrestha1, Mukesh K. Jaiswal1, Magdy A. Amin2, Kenneth D. Beaman1
1Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL, USA
2Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
Kenneth D. Beaman, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: breast cancer, a2 vacuolar ATPase, tumor associated neutrophils, angiogenesis, invasion
Received: June 15, 2015 Accepted: September 29, 2015 Published: October 09, 2015
In invasive breast cancer, tumor associated neutrophils (TAN) represent a significant portion of the tumor mass and are associated with increased angiogenesis and metastasis. Identifying the regulatory factors that control TAN behavior will help in developing ideal immunotherapies. Vacuolar ATPases (V-ATPases), multi-subunit proton pumps, are highly expressed in metastatic breast cancer cells. A cleaved peptide from a2 isoform V-ATPase (a2NTD) has immunomodulatory role in tumor microenvironment. Here, we report for the first time the role of V-ATPase in neutrophils modulation. In invasive breast cancer cells, a2NTD was detected and a2V was highly expressed on the surface. Immunohistochemical analysis of invasive breast cancer tissues revealed that increased neutrophil recruitment and blood vessel density correlated with increased a2NTD levels. In order to determine the direct regulatory role of a2NTD on neutrophils, recombinant a2NTD was used for the treatment of neutrophils isolated from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. Neutrophils treated with a2NTD (a2Neuɸ) showed increased secretion of IL-1RA, IL-10, CCL-2 and IL-6 that are important mediators in cancer related inflammation. Moreover, a2Neuɸ exhibited an increased production of protumorigenic factors including IL-8, matrix metaloprotinase-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Further, functional characterization of a2Neuɸ revealed that a2Neuɸ derived products induce in vitro angiogenesis as well as increase the invasiveness of breast cancer cells. This study establishes the modulatory effect of breast cancer associated a2V on neutrophils, by the action of a2NTD, which has a positive impact on tumor progression, supporting that a2V can be a potential selective target for breast cancer therapy.
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