A vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein epitope-incorporated oncolytic adenovirus overcomes CAR-dependency and shows markedly enhanced cancer cell killing and suppression of tumor growth
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A-Rum Yoon1, Jinwoo Hong1, Chae-Ok Yun1
1Department of Bioengineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791, Korea
Chae-Ok Yun, e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: oncolytic adenovirus, VSVG, fiber, CAR dependency, therapeutic efficacy
Received: May 08, 2015 Accepted: September 14, 2015 Published: September 26, 2015
Utility of traditional oncolytic adenovirus (Ad) has been limited due to low expression of coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) in cancer cells which results in poor infectivity of Ads. Here with an aim of improving the efficiency of Ad’s entry to the cell, we generated a novel tropism-expanded oncolytic Ad which contains the epitope of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (VSVG) at the HI-loop of Ad fiber. We generated 9 variants of oncolytic Ads with varying linkers and partial deletion to the fiber. Only one VSVG epitope-incorporated variant, RdB-1L-VSVG, which contains 1 linker and no deletion to fiber, was produced efficiently. Production of 3-dimensionaly stable fiber in RdB-1L-VSVG was confirmed by immunoblot analysis. RdB-1L-VSVG shows a remarkable improvement in cytotoxicity and total viral yield in cancer cells. RdB-1L-VSVG demonstrates enhanced cytotoxicity in cancer cells with subdued CAR-expression as it can be internalized by an alternate pathway. Competition assays with a CAR-specific antibody (Ab) or VSVG receptor, phosphatidyl serine (PS), reveals that cell internalization of RdB-1L-VSVG is mediated by both CAR and PS. Furthermore, treatment with RdB-1L-VSVG significantly enhanced anti-tumor effect in vivo. These studies demonstrate that the strategy to expand oncolytic Ad tropism may significantly improve therapeutic profile for cancer treatment.
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