The TRAF-interacting protein (TRAIP) is a novel E2F target with peak expression in mitosis
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Christophe Chapard1, Daniel Hohl1 and Marcel Huber1
1 Service of Dermatology, Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland
Marcel Huber, email:
Keywords: TRAF-Interacting Protein, TRAIP, E2F transcription factor, promoter regulation, cell cycle
Received: October 24, 2014 Accepted: November 08, 2014 Published: January 02, 2015
The TRAF-interacting protein (TRAIP) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase required for cell proliferation. TRAIP mRNA is downregulated in human keratinocytes after inhibition of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling. Since E2F transcription factors are downstream of PI3K/AKT/mTOR we investigated whether they regulate TRAIP expression. E2F1 expression significantly increased the TRAIP mRNA level in HeLa cells. Reporter assays with the 1400bp 5’-upstream promoter in HeLa cells and human keratinocytes showed that E2F1-, E2F2- and E2F4-induced upregulation of TRAIP expression is mediated by 168bp upstream of the translation start site. Mutating the E2F binding site within this fragment reduced the E2F1- and E2F2-dependent promoter activities and protein-DNA complex formation in gel shift assays. Abundance of TRAIP mRNA and protein was regulated by the cell cycle with a peak in G2/M. Expression of GFP and TRAIP-GFP demonstrated that TRAIP-GFP protein has a lower steady-state concentration than GFP despite similar mRNA levels. Cycloheximide inhibition experiments indicated that the TRAIP protein has a half-life of around four hours. Therefore, the combination of cell cycle-dependent transcription of the TRAIP gene by E2F and rapid protein degradation leads to cell cycle-dependent expression with a maximum in G2/M. These findings suggest that TRAIP has important functions in mitosis and tumorigenesis.
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