Attenuation of cancer proliferation by suppression of glypican-1 and its pleiotropic effects in neoplastic behavior
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Fang Cheng1, Victor Chérouvrier Hansson1, Grigorios Georgolopoulos2 and Katrin Mani1
1 Department of Experimental Medical Science, Glycobiology Group, Lund University, Biomedical Center A13, Lund, Sweden
2 Genevia Technologies Oy, Tampere 33100, Finland
|Katrin Mani,||email:||[email protected]|
Keywords: Glypican-1; TCGA; bladder carcinoma; hepatocellular carcinoma; glioma
Received: March 01, 2023 Accepted: March 08, 2023 Published: March 21, 2023
Glypicans (GPC1-6) are associated with tumorigenic processes and their involvement in neoplastic behavior has been discussed in different cancer types. Here, a cancer-wide GPC expression study, using clinical cancer patient data in The Cancer Genome Atlas, reveals net upregulation of GPC1 and GPC2 in primary solid tumors, whereas GPC3, GPC5 and GPC6 display lowered expression pattern compared to normal tissues. Focusing on GPC1, survival analyses of the clinical cancer patient data reveal statistically significant correlation between high expression of GPC1 and poor prognosis in 10 particular cancer types i.e., bladder urothelial carcinoma, brain lower grade glioma, liver hepatocellular carcinoma, colon adenocarcinoma, kidney renal clear cell carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma, mesothelioma, ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma, uterine corpus endometrial carcinoma and uveal melanoma. In vitro studies targeting GPC1 expression by CRISPR/Cas9 or siRNA or treatment with an anti-GPC1 antibody resulted in attenuation of proliferation of cancer cells from bladder carcinoma, glioma and hepatocellular carcinoma patients (T24, U87 and HepG2 cells). Further, overexpression of GPC1 exhibited a significant and negative correlation between GPC1 expression and proliferation of T24 cells. Attempt to reveal the mechanism through which downregulation of GPC1 leads to attenuation of tumor growth using systematic Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicate that suppression of GPC1 results in ECM-mediated inhibition of specific pro-cancer signaling pathways involving TGF-β and p38 MAPK. Identified differential expression and pleiotropic effects of GPCs in specific cancer types emphasize their potential of as novel diagnostic tools and prognostic factors and open doors for future GPC targeted therapy.
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