Research Papers:

Prokineticin-1 induces normal lymphangiogenic activity and is involved in lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer

Takayuki Naruse, Takanori Goi _ and Akio Yamaguchi

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Oncotarget. 2021; 12:1388-1397. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.28016

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Takayuki Naruse1, Takanori Goi1 and Akio Yamaguchi2

1 First Department of Surgery, University of Fukui, Fukui 9101193, Japan

2 Fukui Health Science University, Fukui 9103113, Japan

Correspondence to:

Takanori Goi,email: [email protected]

Keywords: prokineticin-1; lymphangiogenic activity; colorectal cancer

Received: February 15, 2021     Accepted: June 11, 2021     Published: July 06, 2021

Copyright: © 2021 Naruse et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Background: Prokineticin family correlates with important roles in several biological processes, including homeostasis. We discovered novel functions of prokineticin1 (PROK1) in lymphangiogenesis and lymphnode metastasis in colorectal cancer.

Materials and Methods: We examined changes in the number of lymphatic endothelial cells after PROK1 stimulation. PROK1 protein was stimulated with subcutaneously implanted in mice. Also a high-PROK1-expressing colorectal cancer cell line and anti-PROK1 antibody(Ab) were subcutaneously implanted in mice, and then examine lymphangiogenesis. PROK1 expression and the number of lymph vessels were examined in the primary lesion of 391 patients whose colorectal tumors had been resected.

Results: When PROK1 was used as a stimulus, the number of lymphatic cells increased compared to unstimulated cells. And the number of lymph vessels in the skin of mice increased compared to mice implanted without PROK1. The number of lymph vessels in the primary tumor tissue increased when PROK1 was highly expressed compared to cases with non-detectable PROK1 expression. When PROK1 was expressed in human colorectal tumors, the rate of lymphnode metastasis was significantly higher than that in cases with non-detectable PROK1 expression.

Conclusions: PROK1 is a lymphangiogenic factor involved in the formation of new lymph vessels and lymphnode metastasis in human colorectal cancer.

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