Prokineticin-1 induces normal lymphangiogenic activity and is involved in lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in colorectal cancer
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Takayuki Naruse1, Takanori Goi1 and Akio Yamaguchi2
1 First Department of Surgery, University of Fukui, Fukui 9101193, Japan
2 Fukui Health Science University, Fukui 9103113, Japan
Keywords: prokineticin-1; lymphangiogenic activity; colorectal cancer
Received: February 15, 2021 Accepted: June 11, 2021 Published: July 06, 2021
Background: Prokineticin family correlates with important roles in several biological processes, including homeostasis. We discovered novel functions of prokineticin1 (PROK1) in lymphangiogenesis and lymphnode metastasis in colorectal cancer.
Materials and Methods: We examined changes in the number of lymphatic endothelial cells after PROK1 stimulation. PROK1 protein was stimulated with subcutaneously implanted in mice. Also a high-PROK1-expressing colorectal cancer cell line and anti-PROK1 antibody(Ab) were subcutaneously implanted in mice, and then examine lymphangiogenesis. PROK1 expression and the number of lymph vessels were examined in the primary lesion of 391 patients whose colorectal tumors had been resected.
Results: When PROK1 was used as a stimulus, the number of lymphatic cells increased compared to unstimulated cells. And the number of lymph vessels in the skin of mice increased compared to mice implanted without PROK1. The number of lymph vessels in the primary tumor tissue increased when PROK1 was highly expressed compared to cases with non-detectable PROK1 expression. When PROK1 was expressed in human colorectal tumors, the rate of lymphnode metastasis was significantly higher than that in cases with non-detectable PROK1 expression.
Conclusions: PROK1 is a lymphangiogenic factor involved in the formation of new lymph vessels and lymphnode metastasis in human colorectal cancer.
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