Important players in carcinogenesis as potential targets in cancer therapy: an update

Justyna Magdalena Hermanowicz _, Iwona Kwiatkowska and Dariusz Pawlak

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Oncotarget. 2020; 11:3078-3101. https://doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.27689

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Justyna Magdalena Hermanowicz1,2, Iwona Kwiatkowska1 and Dariusz Pawlak1

1 Department of Pharmacodynamics, Medical University of Bialystok, Mickiewicza, Bialystok, Poland

2 Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Medical University of Bialystok, Mickiewicza, Bialystok, Poland

Correspondence to:

Justyna Magdalena Hermanowicz,email: [email protected]

Keywords: modulators of carcinogenesis; acetylcholine; peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors; aquaporins

Received: June 02, 2020     Accepted: July 14, 2020     Published: August 11, 2020


The development of cancer is a problem that has accompanied mankind for years. The growing number of cases, emerging drug resistance, and the need to reduce the serious side effects of pharmacotherapy are forcing scientists to better understand the complex mechanisms responsible for the initiation, promotion, and progression of the disease. This paper discusses the modulation of the particular stages of carcinogenesis by selected physiological factors, including: acetylcholine (ACh), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs), Bruton’s tyrosine kinase (Btk), aquaporins (AQPs), insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2), and exosomes. Understanding their role may contribute to the development of more effective and safer therapies based on new binding sites.

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