Probiotic Propionibacterium freudenreichii requires SlpB protein to mitigate mucositis induced by chemotherapy
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Fillipe Luiz Rosa do Carmo1,2, Houem Rabah2,3, Barbara Fernandes Cordeiro1, Sara Heloisa da Silva1, Rafaela Miranda Pessoa4, Simone Odília Antunes Fernandes4, Valbert Nascimento Cardoso4, Valérie Gagnaire2, Martine Deplanche2, Bruna Savassi1, Alessandra Figueiroa1, Emiliano Rosa Oliveira1, Caio César Fonseca1, Maria Izabel Alves Queiroz1, Núbia Morais Rodrigues1, Sávio Henrique de Cicco Sandes1, Álvaro Cantini Nunes1, Luisa Lemos1, Juliana de Lima Alves1, Ana Maria Caetano Faria1, Ênio Ferreira1, Yves Le Loir2, Gwénaël Jan2,* and Vasco Azevedo1,*
1 Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brasil
2 STLO, INRA, Agrocampus Ouest, UMR1253, Science & Technologie du Lait & de l'Oeuf, Rennes, France
3 Bba, Pôle Agronomique Ouest, Régions Bretagne et Pays de la Loire, Rennes, France
4 Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil
* These authors share senior authorship
Keywords: mucositis; probiotic; surface protein; immunomodulation; inflammation
Received: June 11, 2019 Accepted: October 21, 2019 Published: December 31, 2019
Propionibacterium freudenreichii CIRM-BIA 129 (P. freudenreichii wild type, WT) is a probiotic bacterium, which exerts immunomodulatory effects. This strain possesses extractable surface proteins, including SlpB, which are involved in anti-inflammatory effect and in adhesion to epithelial cells. We decided to investigate the impact of slpB gene mutation on immunomodulation in vitro and in vivo. In an in vitro assay, P. freudenreichii WT reduced expression of IL-8 (p<0.0001) and TNF-α (p<0.0001) cytokines in LPS-stimulated HT-29 cells. P. freudenreichii ΔslpB, lacking the SlpB protein, failed to do so. Subsequently, both strains were investigated in vivo in a 5-FU-induced mucositis mice model. Mucositis is a common side effect of cytotoxic chemotherapy with 5-FU, characterized by mucosal injury, inflammation, diarrhea, and weight loss. The WT strain prevented weight loss, reduced inflammation and consequently histopathological scores. Furthermore, it regulated key markers, including Claudin-1 (cld1, p<0.0005) and IL-17a (Il17a, p<0.0001) genes, as well as IL-12 (p<0.0001) and IL-1β (p<0.0429) cytokines levels. Mutant strain displayed opposite regulatory effect on cld1 expression and on IL-12 levels. This work emphasizes the importance of SlpB in P. freudenreichii ability to reduce mucositis inflammation. It opens perspectives for the development of probiotic products to decrease side effects of chemotherapy using GRAS bacteria with immunomodulatory surface protein properties.
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