Microarray and pathway analysis of two COMMA-Dβ derived clones reveal important differences relevant to their developmental capacity in-vivo
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Jabril R. Johnson1, Corinne A. Boulanger1, Tamaro Hudson2,3, Evan Savage4 and Gilbert H. Smith1
1Mammary Stem Cell Biology Section, Basic Research Laboratory, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA
2Howard University Cancer Center, Washington, DC 20059, USA
3Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Washington, DC 20059, USA
4Genome Explorations, Division of Compass Laboratory Services, Memphis, TN 38105, USA
Gilbert H. Smith, email: [email protected]
Keywords: breast cancer; stem cell; mammary gland; microarray; genetic expression
Received: December 18, 2018 Accepted: January 12, 2019 Published: March 15, 2019
Microarray technologies were used to analyze transcriptomes from Comma-Dβ and clonal derivatives, SP3 (Lobule-competent) and NSP2 (Lobule-incompetent), during different mouse mammary growth phases: in-vitro, in-vivo 5-weeks, and in-vivo 12-weeks. A differentially expressed gene (DEG) algorithm was used to enrich for genes associated with cellular proliferation, differentiation, cell cycle regulation, and carcinogenesis. A pairwise comparison analysis, of SP3 vs. NSP2 in-vitro, revealed a total of 45 DEGs significantly up-regulated in SP3. Of the 45 DEGs, only Ccnd1 (Cyclin D1), Id2 (Inhibitor of DNA binding 2) and Sox9 (SRY Box 9) were identified to be associated with cellular proliferation, regulation of G1/S mitotic cell cycle, mammary gland and alveolar development in SP3. During the regenerative growth phase, in-vivo 5-weeks, we identified a total of 545 DEGs. 308 DEGs, of the 545 DEGs, were significantly up-regulated and 237 DEGs were significantly down-regulated in SP3 vs. NSP2. In addition, we identified 9 DEGs significantly up-regulated, within SP3’s cell cycle pathway and a persistent overexpression of Cyclin D1, Id2, and Sox9, consistent with our in-vitro study. During the maintenance phase, in-vivo 12-weeks, we identified 407 DEGs. Of these, 336 DEGs were up-regulated, and 71 were down-regulated in SP3 vs. NSP2. Our data shows 15 DEGs significantly up-regulated, simultaneously, affecting 8 signal transducing carcinogenic pathways. In conclusion, increased expression of Cyclin D1, Id2 and Sox9 appear to be important for lobular genesis in SP3. Also, in-vivo 12 week displays increase expression of genes and pathways, involved in tumorigenesis.
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