The double stranded RNA analog poly-IC elicits both robust IFN-λ production and oncolytic activity in human gastrointestinal cancer cells
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Chantal Bou-Hanna1,*, Anne Jarry1,2,*, Jean-François Mosnier1,3, Céline Bossard1,2,3 and Christian L. Laboisse1,3
1University of Nantes, EA4273 Biometadys, Nantes, France
2Current address: CRCINA, INSERM, Université d’Angers, Université de Nantes, Nantes, France
3Pathology Department, Nantes University Hospital, Nantes, France
Keywords: dsRNA/poly-IC; IFN-λ; immunoadjuvant; oncolysis; human gastrointestinal cancer
Received: February 09, 2018 Accepted: September 06, 2018 Published: October 02, 2018
Purpose: Type III IFN (IFN-λ) is the dominant frontline response over type I IFN in human normal intestinal epithelial cells upon viral infection, this response being mimicked by the dsRNA analog poly-IC. Poly-IC also induces cell death in murine intestinal crypts ex vivo. Here we examined whether these innate defense functions of normal intestinal epithelial cells are recapitulated in gastrointestinal carcinoma cells so that they could be harnessed to exert both immunoadjuvant and oncolytic functions, an unknown issue yet.
Experimental design: Four human gastrointestinal carcinoma cell lines versus the Jurkat lymphoma cell line were used to assess the effects of intracellular poly-IC on i) IFN-λ secretion and cell proliferation and ii) role of NFκB signaling using the NFκB inhibitory peptide SN50 as a screening probe and a siRNA approach.
Results: Poly-IC induced in all cell lines except Jurkat both a robust IFN-λ secretion and a cytoreductive effect on adherent cells, restricted to proliferating cells and associated with cellular shedding and reduced clonogenicity of the shed cells. Collectively these findings demonstrate the oncolytic activity of poly-IC. Inhibiting NFκB in T84 cells using a siRNA approach decreased IFN-λ production without protecting the cells from the poly-IC oncolytic effects. In line with these findings IFN-λ, that upregulated the anti-viral protein MxA, was unable per se to alter T84 cell proliferation.
Conclusion: Our demonstration that poly-IC-induced concomitant recapitulation of two innate functions of normal intestine, i.e. IFN-λ production and cell death, by human gastrointestinal cancer cells opens new perspectives in gastrointestinal cancer treatment.
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