Oleanolic acid induces p53-dependent apoptosis via the ERK/JNK/AKT pathway in cancer cell lines in prostatic cancer xenografts in mice
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Gyeong-Ji Kim1, Hyeon-Ju Jo2, Kwon-Jai Lee3, Jeong Woo Choi4 and Jeung Hee An5
1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
2Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul National University of Science & Technology, Seoul, Republic of Korea
3Department of Advanced Materials Engineering, Daejeon University, Daejeon, Republic of Korea
4Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul, Republic of Korea
5Division of Food Bioscience, Konkuk University, Chunju, Korea
Jeung Hee An, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: anticancer activity; apoptosis; oleanolic acid; cell cycle arrest; MAPK signaling
Received: January 20, 2018 Accepted: April 06, 2018 Published: May 29, 2018
We evaluated oleanolic acid (OA)-induced anti-cancer activity, apoptotic mechanism, cell cycle status, and MAPK kinase signaling in DU145 (prostate cancer), MCF-7 (breast cancer), U87 (human glioblastoma), normal murine liver cell (BNL CL.2) and human foreskin fibroblast cell lines (Hs 68). The IC50 values for OA-induced cytotoxicity were 112.57 in DU145, 132.29 in MCF-7, and 163.60 in U87 cells, respectively. OA did not exhibit toxicity in BNL CL. 2 and Hs 68 cell lines in our experiments. OA, at 100 μg/mL, increased the number of apoptotic cells to 27.0% in DU145, 27.0% in MCF-7, and 15.7% in U87, when compared to control cells. This enhanced apoptosis was due to increases in p53, cytochrome c, Bax, PARP-1 and caspase-3 expression in DU145, MCF-7 and U87 cell lines. OA-treated DU145 cells were arrested in G2 because of the activation of p-AKT, p-JNK, p21 and p27, and the decrease in p-ERK, cyclin B1 and CDK2 expression; OA-treated MCF-7 cells were arrested in G1 owing to the activation of p-JNK, p-ERK, p21, and p27, and the decrease in p-AKT, cyclin D1, CDK4, cyclin E, and CDK2; and OA-treated U87 cells also exhibited G1 phase arrest caused by the increase in p-ERK, p-JNK, p-AKT, p21, and p27, and the decrease in cyclin D1, CDK4, cyclin E and CDK2. Thus, OA arrested the cell cycle at different phases and induced apoptosis in cancer cells. These results suggested that OA possibly altered the expression of the cell cycle regulatory proteins differently in varying types of cancer.
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