Identification of radiation responsive genes and transcriptome profiling via complete RNA sequencing in a stable radioresistant U87 glioblastoma model
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Ninh B. Doan1, Ha S. Nguyen1, Hisham S. Alhajala3, Basem Jaber5, Mona M. Al-Gizawiy2, Eun-Young Erin Ahn6, Wade M. Mueller1, Christopher R. Chitambar3, Shama P. Mirza7 and Kathleen M. Schmainda2,4
1Department of Neurosurgery, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
2Department of Radiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
3Department of Medicine, Hematology/Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
4Biophysics, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
5Faculty of Medicine, University of Damascus, Damascus, Syria
6Mitchell Cancer Institute, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL, USA
7Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI, USA
Ninh B. Doan, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: glioblastoma; acid ceramidase; acid ceramidase inhibitors; carmofur; radioresistance
Received: March 07, 2018 Accepted: April 08, 2018 Published: May 04, 2018
The absence of major progress in the treatment of glioblastoma (GBM) is partly attributable to our poor understanding of both GBM tumor biology and the acquirement of treatment resistance in recurrent GBMs. Recurrent GBMs are characterized by their resistance to radiation. In this study, we used an established stable U87 radioresistant GBM model and total RNA sequencing to shed light on global mRNA expression changes following irradiation. We identified many genes, the expressions of which were altered in our radioresistant GBM model, that have never before been reported to be associated with the development of radioresistant GBM and should be concertedly further investigated to understand their roles in radioresistance. These genes were enriched in various biological processes such as inflammatory response, cell migration, positive regulation of epithelial to mesenchymal transition, angiogenesis, apoptosis, positive regulation of T-cell migration, positive regulation of macrophage chemotaxis, T-cell antigen processing and presentation, and microglial cell activation involved in immune response genes. These findings furnish crucial information for elucidating the molecular mechanisms associated with radioresistance in GBM. Therapeutically, with the global alterations of multiple biological pathways observed in irradiated GBM cells, an effective GBM therapy may require a cocktail carrying multiple agents targeting multiple implicated pathways in order to have a chance at making a substantial impact on improving the overall GBM survival.
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