Soluble CD157 in pleural effusions: a complementary tool for the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma
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Stefania Augeri1,*, Stefania Capano1,*, Simona Morone1, Giulia Fissolo1, Alice Giacomino1, Silvia Peola1, Zahida Drace1, Ida Rapa2, Silvia Novello2, Marco Volante2, Luisella Righi2, Enza Ferrero1, Erika Ortolan1 and Ada Funaro1
1Laboratory of Immunogenetics, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Torino, Torino 10126, Italy
2Department of Oncology, University of Torino, San Luigi Hospital, Torino 10043, Italy
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Ada Funaro, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Keywords: CD157/Bst1; mesothelioma; biomarker; pleural effusion; diagnosis
Received: February 28, 2018 Accepted: April 07, 2018 Published: April 27, 2018
Background: CD157/Bst1 glycoprotein is expressed in >85% of malignant pleural mesotheliomas and is a marker of enhanced tumor aggressiveness.
Results: In vitro, mesothelial cells (malignant and non-malignant) released CD157 in soluble form or as an exosomal protein. In vivo, sCD157 is released and can be measured in pleural effusions by ELISA. Significantly higher levels of effusion sCD157 were detected in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma than in patients with non-mesothelioma tumors or with non-malignant conditions. In our patient cohort, the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve for sCD157 that discriminated malignant pleural mesothelioma from all other causes of pleural effusion was 0.685, cut-off (determined by the Youden Index) = 23.66 ng/ml (62.3% sensitivity; 73.93% specificity). Using a cut-off that yielded 95.58% specificity, measurement of sCD157 in cytology-negative effusions increased sensitivity of malignant pleural mesothelioma diagnosis from 34.42% to 49.18%.
Conclusions: Evaluation of soluble CD157 in pleural effusions provides a diagnostic aid in malignant mesothelioma.
Methods: Soluble CD157 (sCD157) was detected biochemically in culture supernatants of malignant and non-malignant mesothelial cells, and in pleural effusions from various pathological conditions. An ELISA system was established to measure the concentration of sCD157 in fluids, and extended to analyze sCD157 in pleural effusions from a cohort of 295 patients.
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