HDL and associated factors stratified by sex and menopausal status: results from a community-based survey in Taiwan
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Huan-Cheng Chang1,2, Chuan-Fa Hsieh3,4, Disline Manli Tantoh5, Pei-Chieh Ko5, Ya-Yu Kung6, Mei-Chi Lin6, Yi-Ching Liaw7 and Yung-Po Liaw5,8
1Division of Family Medicine, Department of Community Medicine, Landseed Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan
2Department of Health Care Management, Chang Gung University, Taoyuan, Taiwan
3Department of Medical Education and Research, Landseed Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan
4Center for General Education, Hsin Sheng College of Medical Care and Management, Taoyuan, Taiwan
5Department of Public Health and Institute of Public Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
6Division of Health Management, Landseed Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan
7Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
8Department of Family and Community Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
Yung-Po Liaw, email: [email protected]
Keywords: HDL; menopause; sex; factors; Taiwan
Received: January 10, 2018 Accepted: February 27, 2018 Published: March 27, 2018
Aim: To investigate factors, especially modifiable factors associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in Taiwanese based on sex and menopausal status.
Materials and Methods: Participants comprised 2022 men and 2392 women (1267 menopausal and 1125 non-menopausal) aged ≥30 years who resided in Pingzhen district, Taoyuan from 2006-2011. Their data, obtained through questionnaires and measurements were retrieved from the Li-Shin Hospital.
Results: Higher HDL was associated with total cholesterol, underweight, and alcohol drinking in both men and women. It was also associated with education, blood group B, and marital status in men as well as with age in women. Moreover, it was associated with total cholesterol, underweight, and age in both menopausal and non-menopausal women. Furthermore, it was associated with marital status in non-menopausal women and alcohol drinking in menopausal women. Lower HDL was associated with triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), overweight, obesity, waist-hip ratio (WHR), uric acid, and smoking in both men and women and with coffee drinking in only women. It was also associated with uric acid, triglycerides, LDL, overweight, obesity, WHR, and body fat in both menopausal and non-menopausal women. Moreover, it was associated with coffee drinking in menopausal women.
Conclusion: Modifiable factors associated with HDL differ according to sex and menopausal status. Sex and menopausal status should be considered when implementing lifestyle changes to raise HDL. For example, both men and women should maintain a normal weight as well as quit smoking.
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