Colorectal cancer cells require glycogen synthase kinase-3β for sustaining mitosis via translocated promoter region (TPR)-dynein interaction
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Firli R.P. Dewi1,*, Takahiro Domoto2,*, Masaharu Hazawa3,4, Akiko Kobayashi1, Takayuki Douwaki1, Toshinari Minamoto2 and Richard W. Wong1,3,4
1Faculty of Natural System, Institute of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan
2Division of Translational and Clinical Oncology, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan
3Cell-Bionomics Research Unit, Innovative Integrated Bio-Research Core, Institute for Frontier Science Initiative, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan
4WPI Nano Life Science Institute (WPI-NanoLSI), Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa, Japan
*These authors contributed equally to this work
Toshinari Minamoto, email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Richard W. Wong, email: email@example.com
Keywords: cell cycle; colon cancer; dynein; glycogen synthase kinase-3β; translocated promoter region (TPR)
Received: April 21, 2017 Accepted: January 19, 2018 Published: January 30, 2018
Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) 3β, which mediates fundamental cellular signaling pathways, has emerged as a potential therapeutic target for many types of cancer including colorectal cancer (CRC). During mitosis, GSK3β localizes in mitotic spindles and centrosomes, however its function is largely unknown. We previously demonstrated that translocated promoter region (TPR, a nuclear pore component) and dynein (a molecular motor) cooperatively contribute to mitotic spindle formation. Such knowledge encouraged us to investigate putative functional interactions among GSK3β, TPR, and dynein in the mitotic machinery of CRC cells. Here, we show that inhibition of GSK3β attenuated proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase, and increased apoptosis of CRC cells. Morphologically, GSK3β inhibition disrupted chromosome segregation, mitotic spindle assembly, and centrosome maturation during mitosis, ultimately resulting in mitotic cell death. These changes in CRC cells were associated with decreased expression of TPR and dynein, as well as disruption of their functional colocalization with GSK3β in mitotic spindles and centrosomes. Clinically, we showed that TPR expression was increased in CRC databases and primary tumors of CRC patients. Furthermore, TPR expression in SW480 cells xenografted into mice was reduced following treatment with GSK3β inhibitors. Together, these results indicate that GSK3β sustains steady mitotic processes for proliferation of CRC cells via interaction with TPR and dynein, thereby suggesting that the therapeutic effect of GSK3β inhibition depends on induction of mitotic catastrophe in CRC cells.
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