Socioeconomic status is inversely associated with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma risk: results from a population-based case-control study in China
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Peipei Gao1,*, Xiaorong Yang2,*, Chen Suo1, Ziyu Yuan1,3, Hongwei Cheng4, Yuechan Zhang1, Li Jin1,3, Ming Lu2,3,5, Xingdong Chen1,3,6 and Weimin Ye3,6
1The State Key Laboratory of Genetic Engineering, Collaborative Innovation Center for Genetics and Development, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
2Department of Epidemiology, Shandong University, Jinan, China
3Fudan University Taizhou Institute of Health Sciences, Taizhou, China
4Taixing People’s Hospital, Taixing, China
5Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, China
6Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
*These authors have contributed equally to this work
Xingdong Chen, email: [email protected]
Ming Lu, email: [email protected]
Keywords: socioeconomic status; esophageal squamous cell carcinoma; case-control study; multiple correspondence analysis; wealth score
Received: July 12, 2017 Accepted: January 01, 2018 Published: January 06, 2018
Socioeconomic status (SES) is suspected to influence the risk of esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) in China, however, the evidence is still inconclusive and the selection of SES indicators remains inconsistent. In current study, we examined the association between SES and risk of ESCC based on a population-based case-control study in Taixing, China, with 1298 histopathology-confirmed cases and 1900 controls recruited between October 2010 and September 2013. Data on SES indicators was collected using a structured questionnaire. We constructed a composite wealth score based on the ownership of a series of household appliances and other variables by using multiple correspondence analysis (MCA). We used unconditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of ESCC in association with SES indicators. SES was inversely associated with ESCC risk in current study. Higher education (secondary high school or above vs illiteracy, OR=0.60, 95%CI, 0.41-0.87), larger house area per person (>70 vs <45 square meters, OR=0.71, 95%CI, 0.59-0.86) and higher wealth score (5th quintile (high) vs 1st quintile (low), OR=0.43, 95%CI, 0.32-0.57) were associated with a decreased risk of ESCC. Subjects possessing several household appliances >5 years also had a lower ESCC risk. Whereas physical labor (very active vs sedentary, OR=1.69, 95%CI, 1.27-2.26) and larger families (≥6 vs <3 in household, OR=1.63, 95%CI, 1.30-2.03) increased the risk of ESCC. These findings confirm the strong inverse association between SES and ESCC risk. Future studies are needed to verify these findings and identify contributing factors underlying the observed associations.
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